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Open Access Research article

Determination of hematological and immunological parameters among HIV positive patients taking highly active antiretroviral treatment and treatment naïve in the antiretroviral therapy clinic of Gondar University Hospital, Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia: a comparative cross-sectional study

Bamlaku Enawgaw1*, Meseret Alem2, Zelalem Addis3 and Mulugeta Melku1

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Hematology & Immunohematology, School of Biomedical and Laboratory Sciences, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, P.O. Box 196, Gondar, Ethiopia

2 Department of Immunology and Molecular Biology, School of Biomedical and Laboratory Sciences, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia

3 Department of Medical Microbiology, School of Biomedical and Laboratory Sciences, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia

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BMC Hematology 2014, 14:8  doi:10.1186/2052-1839-14-8

Published: 25 March 2014

Abstract

Background

Anemia, leucopenia and thrombocytopenia are the commonest hematological abnormalities resulting from human immunodeficiency virus infection. The use of antiretroviral drugs could positively or negatively affect these disorders. Thus a specific diagnosis and a determination of hematological and immunological parameters are required for initiating and monitoring early treatment to avert disease progression. Therefore, this study aimed to compare hematological and immunological parameters in HIV positive patients taking antiretroviral therapy and those treatment naïve patients in Gondar University Hospital.

Methods

A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted on a total of 290 HIV patients from February to May 2012 in Gondar University Hospital. Study subjects were divided in to two groups: 145 HIV positive treatment naïve and 145 on HAART. Data of socio demographic characteristics and clinical conditions of the study subjects was collected using structured pretested questionnaire at their follow up date. Hematological and immunological parameters were collected and processed by cell Dyne 1800 and BD FACS count respectively. The variables compared here were Hematological parameters (Total and differential WBC, RBC, Hgb, HCT, MCV, MCH, MCHC, RDW, PLT, and MPV) and CD4 count. In order to compare means independent sample T-test was conducted using SPSS version 20 statistical software. P- Value < 0.05 was considered as significant.

Result

Prevalence of anemia, leucopenia, thrombocytopenia, neutropenia and lymphopenia were 11.7%, 35.9%, 4.1%, 28.3% and 2.1% in patients on HAART and 29.7%, 16.6%, 9%, 14.5% and 2.1% in HAART naïve patients respectively. There was a significant difference in total WBC, RBC, Hgb, MCV, MCH, MCHC, MPV and CD4 counts between patients on HAART and HAART naïve patients.

Conclusion

Prevalence of anemia was high in HAART naïve patients while leucopenia and neutropenia prevalence was higher in patients on HAART and their prevalence increased as the CD4 count decreased. HIV Patients should be investigated for hematological and immunological changes following with appropriate therapeutic interventions.

Keywords:
HIV; Anemia; Leucopenia; Thrombocytopenia; HAART