Table 6

Psychosocial Adjustment to Hereditary Diseases (PAHD) Scale
0 Not at all 1 A little bit 2 Moderately 3 Quite a bit 4 Extremely
I think about being a carrier/non-carrier more than I should. (BK11_R)……….. 0 1 2 3 4
I try to be positive about my future health and overall well-being. (BK12) ......... 0 1 2 3 4
It is important for my future health not to dwell on the hereditary link to cancer in the family. (BK13) ............................................................................................ 0 1 2 3 4
It was hard changing how often I had to screen for cancer. (BK14_R) ................ 0 1 2 3 4
It bothers me when others do not accept my carrier/non-carrier status. (BK15_R) .............................................................................................................. 0 1 2 3 4
Younger people need to be encouraged to talk about all the cancer in the family. (FC16) ...................................................................................................... 0 1 2 3 4
I find it hard dealing with younger family members who get cancer. (BK17_R) 0 1 2 3 4
I worry about what the future might hold for younger family members. (BK18_R) .............................................................................................................. 0 1 2 3 4
The stress of so much cancer in the family, more so in younger members, pulled some of us closer together but pushed others apart. (BK19_R) ................ 0 1 2 3 4
Regular screening for cancer became a constant reminder of my cancer risk by being in this family. (BK20_R) ............................................................................ 0 1 2 3 4
Some families handle the challenges of a strong cancer presence better than others do. We want to know how well individuals in your family support one another. Using the scale given, you are asked to rate how well each statement reflects your situation.
Feeling supported by family and friends has helped me accept being a carrier/non-carrier. (FC21) .................................................................................... 0 1 2 3 4
I find it easy to seek help from family members when I need it. (FC 22) ............ 0 1 2 3 4
It is important for everyone to talk openly about the high cancer risk in the family. (FC23) ....................................................................................................... 0 1 2 3 4
I am concerned that the presence of hereditary cancer has hurt family relations. (BK24_R) .............................................................................................................. 0 1 2 3 4
I worry that all the suffering and death from cancer is placing too much burden on family members. (BK25_R) ............................................................................. 0 1 2 3 4
Providing care to other family members with cancer has helped me become more accepting of my future. (FC26) ................................................................... 0 1 2 3 4
With so much cancer in the family, I worried that something would show up on my next screening test. (BK27_R) ........................................................................ 0 1 2 3 4
When I knew there was a test to see if my family had the cancer gene, I was relieved. (FC28) .................................................................................................... 0 1 2 3 4
Encouragement and support from family and friends helps one accept the need for health living and cancer screening. (FC29) ..................................................... 0 1 2 3 4

Note: R indicates items to be reverse coded. BK = Burden of Knowing. FC = Family Connectedness.

Watkins et al.

Watkins et al. BMC Psychology 2013 1:7   doi:10.1186/2050-7283-1-7

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