Table 6

Summary of studies investigating sex differences in knee and hip internal rotation angles and moments during a vertical landing task

References

Population

Landing Task

Result†

Category

Mean Age (years)

Double-Leg vs. Single Leg

Height (cm)

at IC

peak

RoM


Knee Internal Rotation Angle

Earl et al. [23]

Adult

22.8

Double

31

---

0

---

Kiriyama et al. [33]

Adolescent

17.0

Single

20

---

+

---

Lephart et al. [34]

Adult-Athlete

20.3

Single

20

---

0

---

Nagano et al. [35]

Adult-Athlete

19.6

Single

30

0

+a

---

TOTAL*

% (-/+/0)

0/0/100

0/50/50

---

Knee Internal Rotation Moment

Chaudhari et al. [9]

Adult

19.9

Double

30.48

---

0

---

Hip Internal Rotation Angle

Earl et al. [23]

Adult

22.8

Double

31

---

0

---

Lephart et al. [34]

Adult-Athlete

20.3

Single

20

---

+

---

Hip Internal Rotation Moment

Chaudhari et al. [9]

Adult

19.9

Double

30.48

---

0

---


† +: greater value in female subjects; -: smaller value in female subjects; 0: no differences between sexes; ---: not investigated

a knee internal/external rotation angle at peak vertical ground reaction force

* Percentage of studies having found lower (-), greater (+), and similar (0) values in female subjects in comparison with male subjects

IC: initial ground contact; RoM: range of motion

Beaulieu and McLean Sports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation, Therapy & Technology 2012 4:10   doi:10.1186/1758-2555-4-10

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