Table 4

Summary of studies investigating sex differences in knee abduction angles and moments during a vertical landing task

References

Population

Landing Task

Result†

Category

Mean Age (years)

Double-Leg vs. Single Leg

Height (cm)

at IC

peak

RoM


Knee Abduction Angle

Schmitz et al. [11]

Adolescent

14.1

Double

30

---

---

+a

Ford et al. [25]

Adolescent

16.0

Double

31

0

+

---

Ford et al. [13]

Adolescent

12-16

Double

31

---

+b

---

Hewett et al. [28]

Adolescent

14.1

Double

31

+

+

---

Walsh et al. [44]

Adult-Athlete

19.5

Double

30.5

+

+

---

Hughes et al. [30]

Adult-Athlete

21.4

Double

not specified

0

+

+

Hughes et al. [31]

Adult-Athlete

21.4

Double

not specified

0

+

+

Wallace et al. [43]

Adult-Athlete

21.6

Double

maximum vertical jump height

---

0

---

Cortes et al. [21]

Adult

23.8

Double

30

0

0c

---

Earl et al. [23]

Adult

22.8

Double

31

---

+

---

Gehring et al. [27]

Adult

23.8

Double

52

+

+

---

Kernozek et al. [32]

Adult

24.1

Double

60

0

+

+

Pappas et al. [37]

Adult

28.5

Double & Single

40

---

+d

---

Kiriyama et al. [33]

Adolescent

17.0

Single

20

---

0

---

Nagano et al. [35]

Adult-Athlete

19.6

Single

30

0

0e

---

Orishimo et al. [36]

Adult-Athlete

26.3

Single

30

0

0c

0

Kernozek et al. [10]

Adult

23.4

Single

50

---

+

---

Russell et al. [38]

Adult

22.5

Single

60

+

+c

---

TOTAL*

% (-/+/0)

0/36/64

0/71/29

0/80/20

Knee Abduction Moment

Ford et al. [13]

Adolescent

12-16

Double

31

---

+b

---

Sigward et al. [14]

Adolescent

14.7

Double

36

---

+f

---

Chaudhari et al. [9]

Adult

19.9

Double

30.48

---

0

---

Kernozek et al. [32]

Adult

24.1

Double

60

---

-

---

Orishimo et al. [36]

Adult-Athlete

26.3

Single

30

0

0

---

Kernozek et al. [10]

Adult

23.4

Single

50

---

0

---

TOTAL*

% (-/+/0)

0/0/100

17/33/50

---


† +: greater value in female subjects; -: smaller value in female subjects; 0: no differences between sexes; ---: not investigated

Landing from a jump to block a volleyball in the presence of a net of standard, sex-specific height

a frontal-plane angle in two dimensions

b in post-pubertal group only (and not pre-pubertal group)

c knee abduction angle at peak knee flexion angle

d knee abduction angle at 40° knee flexion angle

e knee abduction angle at peak vertical ground reaction force

f average knee abduction moment

* Percentage of studies having found lower (-), greater (+), and similar (0) values in female subjects in comparison with male subjects

IC: initial ground contact; RoM: range of motion

Beaulieu and McLean Sports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation, Therapy & Technology 2012 4:10   doi:10.1186/1758-2555-4-10

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