Table 3

Summary of studies investigating sex differences in hip flexion angles and moments during a vertical landing task

References

Population

Landing Task

Result†

Category

Mean Age (years)

Double-Leg vs. Single Leg

Height (cm)

at IC

peak

RoM


Hip Flexion Angle

Ford et al. [26]

Adolescent

12-16

Double

31

-

0

---

Salci et al. [40]

Adult-Athlete

21.4

Double

40 & 60

---

- (40)

0 (60)

---

Hughes & Watkins [29]

Adult-Athlete

21.4

Double

not specified

0

+

+

Cortes et al. [21]

Adult

23.8

Double

30

0

0a

---

Shultz et al. [12]

Adult

22.4

Double

45

0

---

+

Decker et al. [22]

Adult

27.5

Double

60

0

---

0

Kernozek et al. [32]

Adult

24.1

Double

60

0

0

0

Lephart et al. [34]

Adult-Athlete

20.3

Single

20

---

0

---

Orishimo et al. [36]

Adult-Athlete

26.3

Single

30

0

0a

0

Schmitz et al. [41]

Adult

23.2

Single

30

0

---

-

Kernozek et al. [10]

Adult

23.4

Single

50

---

+

---

TOTAL*

% (-/+/0)

13/0/88

11/22/67

17/33/50

Hip Flexion Moment

Salci et al. [40]

Adult-Athlete

21.4

Double

40 & 60

---

0

---

Decker et al. [22]

Adult

27.5

Double

60

---

0

---

Kernozek et al. [32]

Adult

24.1

Double

60

---

0

---

Orishimo et al. [36]

Adult-Athlete

26.3

Single

30

0

0

---

Kernozek et al. [10]

Adult

23.4

Single

50

---

0

---

TOTAL*

% (-/+/0)

0/0/100

0/0/100

---


† +: greater value in female subjects; -: smaller value in female subjects; 0: no differences between sexes; ---: not investigated

Landing from a jump to block a volleyball in the presence of a net of standard, sex-specific height

a hip flexion angle at peak knee flexion angle

* Percentage of studies having found lower (-), greater (+), and similar (0) values in female subjects in comparison with male subjects

IC: initial ground contact; RoM: range of motion

Beaulieu and McLean Sports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation, Therapy & Technology 2012 4:10   doi:10.1186/1758-2555-4-10

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