Table 2

Summary of studies investigating sex differences in knee flexion angles and moments during a vertical landing task

References

Population

Landing Task

Result†

Category

Mean Age (years)

Double-Leg vs. Single Leg

Height (cm)

at IC

peak

RoM


Knee Flexion Angle

Ford et al. [26]

Adolescent

12-16 (range)

Double

31

0

+

---

Walsh et al. [44]

Adult-Athlete

19.5

Double

30.5

0

0

---

Salci et al. [40]

Adult-Athlete

21.4

Double

40 & 60

---

- (40)

0 (60)

---

Hughes & Watkins [29]

Adult-Athlete

21.4

Double

not specified

-

0

+

Hughes et al. [31]

Adult-Athlete

21.4

Double

not specified

0

+

+

Russell et al. [39]

Adolescent & Adult

9.5 (youth)

23.9 (adult)

Double

50% of maximum vertical jump height

0

---

---

Cortes et al. [21]

Adult

23.8

Double

30

0

0

---

Chaudhari et al. [9]

Adult

19.9

Double

30.48

0

---

---

Earl et al. [23]

Adult

22.8

Double

31

---

0

---

Huston et al. [8]

Adult

28.0

Double

20, 40 & 60

0 (20)

- (40 & 60)

0

0

Shultz et al. [12]

Adult

22.4

Double

45

0

---

+

Gehring et al. [27]

Adult

23.8

Double

52

0

+

---

Decker et al. [22]

Adult

27.5

Double

60

-

---

-

Kernozek et al. [32]

Adult

24.1

Double

60

0

0

0

Pappas et al. [37]

Adult

28.5

Double & Single

40

0

0

---

Kiriyama et al. [33]

Adolescent

17.0

Single

20

---

0

---

Lephart et al. [34]

Adult-Athlete

20.3

Single

20

---

-

---

Fagenbaum & Darling [24]

Adult-Athlete

not specified

Single

25.4 & 50.8

+

+

---

Nagano et al. [35]

Adult-Athlete

19.6

Single

30

0

0a

---

Orishimo et al. [36]

Adult-Athlete

26.3

Single

30

0

0

0

Urabe et al. [42]

Adult-Athlete

22.1

Single

maximum vertical jump height

0

---

---

Schmitz et al. [41]

Adult

23.2

Single

30

0

---

-

Kernozek et al. [10]

Adult

23.4

Single

50

---

0

---

TOTAL*

% (-/+/0)

20/5/75

11/22/67

25/38/38

Knee Flexion Moment

Ford et al. [26]

Adolescent

12-16 (range)

Double

31

---

0

---

Salci et al. [40]

Adult-Athlete

21.4

Double

40 & 60

---

0 (40)

+ (60)

---

Chaudhari et al. [9]

Adult

19.9

Double

30.48

---

0

---

Shultz et al. [12]

Adult

22.4

Double

45

---

+

---

Decker et al. [22]

Adult

27.5

Double

60

---

0

---

Kernozek et al. [32]

Adult

24.1

Double

60

---

0

---

Orishimo et al. [36]

Adult-Athlete

26.3

Single

30

0

0

---

Kernozek et al. [10]

Adult

23.4

Single

50

---

0

---

TOTAL*

% (-/+/0)

0/0/100

0/22/78

---


† +: greater value in female subjects; -: smaller value in female subjects; 0: no differences between sexes; ---: not investigated

Landing from a jump to block a volleyball in the presence of a net of standard, sex-specific height

a knee flexion angle at peak vertical ground reaction force

* Percentage of studies having found lower (-), greater (+), and similar (0) values in female subjects in comparison with male subjects

IC: initial ground contact; RoM: range of motion

Beaulieu and McLean Sports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation, Therapy & Technology 2012 4:10   doi:10.1186/1758-2555-4-10

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