Email updates

Keep up to date with the latest news and content from BMC Research Notes and BioMed Central.

Open Access Short Report

Predominance of multi-resistant gram-negative bacteria colonizing chronic lower limb ulcers (CLLUs) at Bugando Medical Center

Nyambura Moremi1, Martha F Mushi1*, Mbunda Fidelis2, Phillipo Chalya2, Mariam Mirambo1 and Stephen E Mshana1

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Microbiology/Immunology, Catholic University of Health and Allied Sciences, P.O.BOX 1464 Mwanza, Tanzania

2 Department of Surgery, Catholic University of Health and Allied Sciences, P.O.BOX 1464 Mwanza, Tanzania

For all author emails, please log on.

BMC Research Notes 2014, 7:211  doi:10.1186/1756-0500-7-211

Published: 4 April 2014



Infections, trauma, malignances and poorly controlled diabetes are common causes of chronic lower limb ulcerations in developing countries. Infected wound with multi-drug resistant bacteria usually are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. We report the distribution of bacteria pathogens colonizing the chronic lower limb ulcers and their drug susceptibility pattern from Bugando Medical Centre (BMC) a tertiary hospital in Tanzania.


Three hundred non-repetitive wound swabs were aseptically collected from 300 patients with chronic lower limb ulcers using sterile swabs and processed following standard operative procedures. Isolates were identified using in house biochemical testing and in case of ambiguous confirmation was done using API 20NE and API 20E. Susceptibility was determined using disc diffusion test following clinical laboratory standard Institute guidelines (CLSI). Of 300 swabs from patients with chronic lower limbs ulcers, 201 (67.7%) had positive aerobic culture within 48 hours of incubation. Of 201 isolates, 180(89.6%) were gram-negative bacteria. Out of 180 gram negative bacteria, resistance was detected for ampicillin (95%, n = 171), amoxicillin/clavulanate (83.9%, n = 151), trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (78.9%, n = 142), ceftriaxone (46.7%, n = 84), ceftazidime (45.6%, n = 82), gentamicin (39.4%, n = 71), ciprofloxacin (17.8%, n = 32) and meropenem 28(15.6%, n = 25). A total of 41 (35%) of enterobacteriaceae were found to be extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) producers while of 18 Staphylococcus aureus, 8(44.4%) were found to be methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).


There is high prevalence of ESBL and MRSA isolates in surgical wards at BMC. We recommend infection control and antibiotic stewardship programs in these wards to minimize spread of multi-resistant organisms.

Chronic lower limb ulcers; Multi-drug resistant; Gram negative enteric