Email updates

Keep up to date with the latest news and content from BMC Research Notes and BioMed Central.

Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Emerging threat of multidrug resistant bugs – Acinetobacter calcoaceticus baumannii complex and Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus

Shyam Kumar Mishra*, Basista Prasad Rijal and Bharat Mani Pokhrel

Author Affiliations

Department of Microbiology, Institute of Medicine, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal

For all author emails, please log on.

BMC Research Notes 2013, 6:98  doi:10.1186/1756-0500-6-98

Published: 15 March 2013



Infections caused by bacteria such as multidrug resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter spp. and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) constitute a worldwide pandemic. Without gathering information about these strains, we cannot reduce the morbidity and mortality due to infections caused by these notorious bugs.


This study was conducted to identify the status of MDR Acinetobacter spp. and MRSA in a tertiary care centre of Nepal. Sputum, endotracheal aspirate and bronchial washing specimens were collected and processed from patients suspected of lower respiratory tract infection following standard microbiological methods recommended by the American Society for Microbiology (ASM). Double disk synergy test method was employed for the detection of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) in Acinetobacter isolates. Methicillin resistance in S. aureus was confirmed by using cefoxitin and oxacillin disks.


Different genomespecies of Acinetobacter were isolated; these consisted of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus baumannii complex and A. lwoffii. Around 95% of Acinetobacter isolates were MDR, while 12.9% were ESBL-producer. Of the total 33 isolates of S. aureus, 26 (78.8%) were MDR and 14 (42.4%) were methicillin resistant.


A large number of MDR Acinetobacter spp. and MRSA has been noted in this study. The condition is worsened by the emergence of ESBL producing Acinetobacter spp. Hence, judicious use of antimicrobials is mandatory in clinical settings. Moreover, there should be vigilant surveillance of resistant clones in laboratories.

Acinetobacter spp.; MDR; MRSA; ESBL