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Open Access Research article

The prevalence of pre-hypertension and its association to established cardiovascular risk factors in south of Iran

Karamatollah Rahmanian1 and Mohammad Shojaie2*

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Social Medicine, Jahom University of Medical Sciences, Jahrom, Iran

2 Department of Internal medicine, Jahom University of Medical Sciences, Motahhari Avenue, Jahrom, Iran

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BMC Research Notes 2012, 5:386  doi:10.1186/1756-0500-5-386

Published: 28 July 2012

Abstract

Background

Pre-hypertension is associated with an increased risk of the development of hypertension and subsequent cardiovascular disease and raises mortality risk. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of pre-hypertension and to explore the associations between pre-hypertension and established cardiovascular risk factors in a population-based sample of Iranian adults.

Methods

In this cross-sectional study a representative sample of 892 participants aged ≥30 years was selected using a multistage cluster sampling method. After completion of a detailed demographic and medical questionnaire (gender, age, history of diabetes mellitus and hypertension, taking antihypertensive or hypoglycemic agents and history of smoking), all participants were subjected to physical examination, blood lipid profile, blood glucose, anthropometric and smoking assessments, during the years 2009 and 2010. Variables were considered significant at a p-value ≤ 0.05. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 11.5 software.

Results

Pre-hypertension was observed among 300 (33.7%) subjects, 36.4% for men and 31.4% for women (p > 0.05). The pre-hypertensive group had higher levels of blood glucose and triglycerides, higher body mass index and lower percentage of smoking than did the normotensive group. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that obesity and overweight were the strongest predictors of pre-hypertension [odds ratio, 2.74: 95% CI (Confidence Interval), 1.62 to 4.62 p < 0.001; odds ratio, 2.56, 95% CI, 1.74 to 3.77, p < 0.001 respectively].

Conclusions

Overweight and obesity are major determinants of the high prevalence rate of pre-hypertension detected in Iranian population. Therefore, primary prevention strategies should concentrate on reducing overweight and obesity if the increased prevalence of pre-hypertension is to be diminished in Iranian adults.

Keywords:
Pre-hypertension; Cardiovascular risk factor; Obesity; BMI