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AdapterRemoval: easy cleaning of next-generation sequencing reads

Stinus Lindgreen

Author Affiliations

Centre for GeoGenetics, Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Øster Voldgade 5-7, 1350 Copenhagen K, Denmark

The Bioinformatics Centre, Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Ole Maaloes Vej 5, 2200 Copenhagen, Denmark

School of Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8041, New Zealand

BMC Research Notes 2012, 5:337  doi:10.1186/1756-0500-5-337

Published: 2 July 2012



With the advent of next-generation sequencing there is an increased demand for tools to pre-process and handle the vast amounts of data generated. One recurring problem is adapter contamination in the reads, i.e. the partial or complete sequencing of adapter sequences. These adapter sequences have to be removed as they can hinder correct mapping of the reads and influence SNP calling and other downstream analyses.


We present a tool called AdapterRemoval which is able to pre-process both single and paired-end data. The program locates and removes adapter residues from the reads, it is able to combine paired reads if they overlap, and it can optionally trim low-quality nucleotides. Furthermore, it can look for adapter sequence in both the 5’ and 3’ ends of the reads. This is a flexible tool that can be tuned to accommodate different experimental settings and sequencing platforms producing FASTQ files. AdapterRemoval is shown to be good at trimming adapters from both single-end and paired-end data.


AdapterRemoval is a comprehensive tool for analyzing next-generation sequencing data. It exhibits good performance both in terms of sensitivity and specificity. AdapterRemoval has already been used in various large projects and it is possible to extend it further to accommodate application-specific biases in the data.

Next-generation sequencing; Adapter trimming; Data pre-processing; Sequence alignment; Paired-end reads; Single-end reads