Open Access Short Report

A small scale study on the effects of oral administration of the β-glucan produced by Aureobasidium pullulans on milk quality and cytokine expressions of Holstein cows, and on bacterial flora in the intestines of Japanese black calves

Hirofumi Uchiyama1, Atsushi Iwai1*, Yukoh Asada2, Daisuke Muramatsu1, Shiho Aoki1, Koji Kawata1, Kisato Kusano2, Koji Nagashima3, Daisuke Yasokawa3, Mitsuyasu Okabe2 and Tadaaki Miyazaki4

Author Affiliations

1 Aureo Science Co., Ltd., Hokudai Business Spring, North 21, West 12, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido, 001-0021, Japan

2 Aureo Co., Ltd, 54-1 Kazusakoito, Kimitsu, Chiba, 292-1149, Japan

3 Hokkaido Food Processing Research Center, 589-4 Bunkyodai, Midorimachi, Ebetsu, Hokkaido, 069-0836, Japan

4 Department of Probiotics Immunology, Institute for Genetic Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita-15, Nishi-7, Kita-Ku, Sapporo, 060-0815, Japan

For all author emails, please log on.

BMC Research Notes 2012, 5:189  doi:10.1186/1756-0500-5-189

Published: 25 April 2012



The β–(1 → 3),(1 → 6)-D-glucan extracellularly produced by Aureobasidium pullulans exhibits immunomodulatory activity, and is used for health supplements. To examine the effects of oral administration of the β–(1 → 3),(1 → 6)-D-glucan to domestic animals, a small scale study was conducted using Holstein cows and newborn Japanese Black calves.


Holstein cows of which somatic cell count was less than 3 x 105/ml were orally administered with or without the β-(1 → 3),(1 → 6)-D-glucan-enriched A. pullulans cultured fluid (AP-CF) for 3 months, and the properties of milk and serum cytokine expression were monitored. Somatic cell counts were not significantly changed by oral administration of AP-CF, whereas the concentration of solid non fat in the milk tended to increase in the AP-CF administered cows. The results of cytokine expression analysis in the serum using ELISA indicate that the expressions of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-6 in all cows which were orally administered with AP-CF became slightly lower than that of control cows after the two-month treatment. On the other hand, IL-8 expression tended to indicate a moderately higher level in all treated cows after the three-month administration of AP-CF in comparison with that of the control cows. Peripartum Japanese Black beef cows and their newborn calves were orally administered with AP-CF, and bacterial flora in the intestines of the calves were analyzed by T-RFLP (terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism). The results suggest that bacterial flora are tendentiously changed by oral administration of AP-CF.


Our data indicated the possibility that oral administration of the β–(1 → 3),(1 → 6)-D- glucan produced by A. pullulans affects cytokine expressions in the serum of Holstein cows, and influences bacterial flora in the intestines of Japanese Black calves. The findings may be helpful for further study on the efficacies of oral administration of β-(1 → 3),(1 → 6)-D-glucans on domestic animals.