Email updates

Keep up to date with the latest news and content from BMC Research Notes and BioMed Central.

Open Access Research article

Kdr-based insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae s.s populations in Cameroon: spread of the L1014F and L1014S mutations

Philippe Nwane12*, Josiane Etang13, Mouhamadou Chouaїbou12, Jean Claude Toto1, Rémy Mimpfoundi2 and Frédéric Simard4

Author Affiliations

1 Organisation de Coordination pour la lutte contre les Endémies en Afrique Centrale, Yaoundé, Cameroun

2 Université de Yaoundé I, Yaoundé, Cameroun

3 Faculty of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Douala, Cameroun

4 Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), UR016, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso

For all author emails, please log on.

BMC Research Notes 2011, 4:463  doi:10.1186/1756-0500-4-463

Published: 28 October 2011



The spread of insecticide resistance in the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae is a serious threat for current vector control strategies which rely on the use of insecticides. Two mutations at position 1014 of the S6 transmembrane segment of domain II in the voltage gated sodium channel, known as kdr (knockdown resistance) mutations leading to a change of a Leucine to a Phenylalanine (L1014F) or to a Serine (L1014S) confer resistance to DDT and pyrethroid insecticides in the insect. This paper presents the current distribution of the kdr alleles in wild Anopheles gambiae populations in Cameroon.


A total of 1,405 anopheline mosquitoes were collected from 21 localities throughout Cameroon and identified as An. gambiae (N = 1,248; 88.8%), An. arabiensis (N = 120; 8.5%) and An. melas (N = 37; 2.6%). Both kdr alleles 1014F and 1014S were identified in the M and S molecular forms of An. gambiae s.s. The frequency of the 1014F allele ranged from 1.7 to 18% in the M-form, and from 2 to 90% in the S-form. The 1014S allele ranged from 3-15% in the S-form and in the M-form its value was below 3%. Some specimens were found to carry both resistant kdr alleles.


This study provides an updated distribution map of the kdr alleles in wild An. gambiae populations in Cameroon. The co-occurrence of both alleles in malaria mosquito vectors in diverse ecological zones of the country may be critical for the planning and implementation of malaria vector control interventions based on IRS and ITNs, as currently ongoing in Cameroon.