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Open Access Short Report

Lipohypertrophy in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes and the associated factors

Magdy A Omar, Ahmed A El-Kafoury* and Ramy I El-Araby

Author Affiliations

El-Chatby University Children's Hospital, Department Of Paediatrics, Alexandria University, Egypt

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BMC Research Notes 2011, 4:290  doi:10.1186/1756-0500-4-290

Published: 12 August 2011

Abstract

Background

Despite the important implications of lipohypertrophy for diabetes control, there is a dearth of information and research about the subject in children. The aim of this study was to study the prevalence of lipohypertrophy in children with type 1 diabetes, and to evaluate the associated factors.

Findings

119 children coming for regular follow up in the diabetes clinic were examined for the presence of lipohypertrophy by inspection and palpation. The last 4 readings of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels and other factors that may affect lipohypertrophy were documented. RESULTS: The patient's age ranged from 2 months to 21 years with a median of 10 years (inter-quartile range = 6). Lipohypertrophy occurred in 54.9% of patients, more commonly in males (62.7%) vs. females (48.4%) (P = 0.074). Grade 1 lipohypertrophy occurred in 42.5% and grade 2 in 12.4%. Lipohypertrophy was related significantly to the dose of insulin units per kg of body weight (Odds ratio [OR] = 16.4; 95% CI, 2.2 - 124.6; P = 0.007), the duration of diabetes, [OR] = 1.16; 95% CI, 1.05 - 1.32; P = 0.004)), and the body mass index (BMI) [OR] = 1.68; 95% CI, 1.25 - 2.15; P = 0.006). The mean HbA1c levels of patients with grade 1 and grade 2 lipohypertrophy did not differ from diabetics without lipohypertrophy (F = 0.178, P = 0.837)

Conclusions

The presence of lipohypertrophy was significantly associated with the duration of diabetes and the body mass index. Children with lipohypertrophy needed a significantly higher dose of insulin units/kg of body weight to achieve fair control compared to children without lipohypertrophy. Further studies are needed to ascertain the clinical meaning of these findings.