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Open Access Short Report

Lipohypertrophy in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes and the associated factors

Magdy A Omar, Ahmed A El-Kafoury* and Ramy I El-Araby

Author Affiliations

El-Chatby University Children's Hospital, Department Of Paediatrics, Alexandria University, Egypt

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BMC Research Notes 2011, 4:290  doi:10.1186/1756-0500-4-290

Published: 12 August 2011



Despite the important implications of lipohypertrophy for diabetes control, there is a dearth of information and research about the subject in children. The aim of this study was to study the prevalence of lipohypertrophy in children with type 1 diabetes, and to evaluate the associated factors.


119 children coming for regular follow up in the diabetes clinic were examined for the presence of lipohypertrophy by inspection and palpation. The last 4 readings of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels and other factors that may affect lipohypertrophy were documented. RESULTS: The patient's age ranged from 2 months to 21 years with a median of 10 years (inter-quartile range = 6). Lipohypertrophy occurred in 54.9% of patients, more commonly in males (62.7%) vs. females (48.4%) (P = 0.074). Grade 1 lipohypertrophy occurred in 42.5% and grade 2 in 12.4%. Lipohypertrophy was related significantly to the dose of insulin units per kg of body weight (Odds ratio [OR] = 16.4; 95% CI, 2.2 - 124.6; P = 0.007), the duration of diabetes, [OR] = 1.16; 95% CI, 1.05 - 1.32; P = 0.004)), and the body mass index (BMI) [OR] = 1.68; 95% CI, 1.25 - 2.15; P = 0.006). The mean HbA1c levels of patients with grade 1 and grade 2 lipohypertrophy did not differ from diabetics without lipohypertrophy (F = 0.178, P = 0.837)


The presence of lipohypertrophy was significantly associated with the duration of diabetes and the body mass index. Children with lipohypertrophy needed a significantly higher dose of insulin units/kg of body weight to achieve fair control compared to children without lipohypertrophy. Further studies are needed to ascertain the clinical meaning of these findings.