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Open Access Short Report

Reliability and validity of the Japanese version of the Resilience Scale and its short version

Daisuke Nishi12*, Ritei Uehara4, Maki Kondo5 and Yutaka Matsuoka123

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Psychiatry and Clinical Research Institute, National Disaster Medical Center, Tokyo, Japan

2 CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Tokyo, Japan

3 National Institute of Mental Health, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan

4 Department of Public Health, Jichi Medical University, Tochigi, Japan

5 Aoyama Counseling Center, International University of Health and Welfare Graduate School, Tokyo, Japan

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BMC Research Notes 2010, 3:310  doi:10.1186/1756-0500-3-310

Published: 17 November 2010



The clinical relevance of resilience has received considerable attention in recent years. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the reliability and validity of the Japanese version of the Resilience Scale (RS) and short version of the RS (RS-14).


The original English version of RS was translated to Japanese and the Japanese version was confirmed by back-translation. Participants were 430 nursing and university psychology students. The RS, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), Social Support Questionnaire (SSQ), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) were administered. Internal consistency, convergent validity and factor loadings were assessed at initial assessment. Test-retest reliability was assessed using data collected from 107 students at 3 months after baseline. Mean score on the RS was 111.19. Cronbach's alpha coefficients for the RS and RS-14 were 0.90 and 0.88, respectively. The test-retest correlation coefficients for the RS and RS-14 were 0.83 and 0.84, respectively. Both the RS and RS-14 were negatively correlated with the CES-D and SDS, and positively correlated with the RSES, SSQ and PSS (all p < 0.05), although the correlation between the RS and CES-D was somewhat lower than that in previous studies. Factor analyses indicated a one-factor solution for RS-14, but as for RS, the result was not consistent with previous studies.


This study demonstrates that the Japanese version of RS has psychometric properties with high degrees of internal consistency, high test-retest reliability, and relatively low concurrent validity. RS-14 was equivalent to the RS in internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and concurrent validity. Low scores on the RS, a positive correlation between the RS and perceived stress, and a relatively low correlation between the RS and depressive symptoms in this study suggest that validity of the Japanese version of the RS might be relatively low compared with the original English version.