Modeling protein network evolution under genome duplication and domain shuffling
RNA dynamics and Biomolecular Systems Lab, CNRS UMR168, Institut Curie, Section de Recherche, 11 rue P. & M. Curie, 75005 Paris, France
BMC Systems Biology 2007, 1:49 doi:10.1186/1752-0509-1-49Published: 13 November 2007
Successive whole genome duplications have recently been firmly established in all major eukaryote kingdoms. Such exponential evolutionary processes must have largely contributed to shape the topology of protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks by outweighing, in particular, all time-linear network growths modeled so far.
We propose and solve a mathematical model of PPI network evolution under successive genome duplications. This demonstrates, from first principles, that evolutionary conservation and scale-free topology are intrinsically linked properties of PPI networks and emerge from i) prevailing exponential network dynamics under duplication and ii) asymmetric divergence of gene duplicates. While required, we argue that this asymmetric divergence arises, in fact, spontaneously at the level of protein-binding sites. This supports a refined model of PPI network evolution in terms of protein domains under exponential and asymmetric duplication/divergence dynamics, with multidomain proteins underlying the combinatorial formation of protein complexes. Genome duplication then provides a powerful source of PPI network innovation by promoting local rearrangements of multidomain proteins on a genome wide scale. Yet, we show that the overall conservation and topology of PPI networks are robust to extensive domain shuffling of multidomain proteins as well as to finer details of protein interaction and evolution. Finally, large scale features of direct and indirect PPI networks of S. cerevisiae are well reproduced numerically with only two adjusted parameters of clear biological significance (i.e. network effective growth rate and average number of protein-binding domains per protein).
This study demonstrates the statistical consequences of genome duplication and domain shuffling on the conservation and topology of PPI networks over a broad evolutionary scale across eukaryote kingdoms. In particular, scale-free topologies of PPI networks, which are found to be robust to extensive shuffling of protein domains, appear to be a simple consequence of the conservation of protein-binding domains under asymmetric duplication/divergence dynamics in the course of evolution.