Urodynamic investigation by telemetry in Beagle dogs: validation and effects of oral administration of current urological drugs: a pilot study
1 Department of Companion Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Liège, 4000 Liège, Belgium
2 Department of Animal Production - Functional Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Liège, 4000 Liège, Belgium
BMC Veterinary Research 2013, 9:197 doi:10.1186/1746-6148-9-197Published: 8 October 2013
Vesico-urethral function may be evaluated in humans and dogs by conventional urodynamic testing (cystometry and urethral pressure profilometry) or by electromyography. These techniques are performed under general anaesthesia in dogs. However, anaesthesia can depress bladder and urethral pressures and inhibit the micturition reflex. The primary objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the use of telemetry for urodynamic investigation in dogs. We also aimed to determine the applicability of telemetry to toxicologic studies by assessing the repeatability of telemetric recordings.
Conventional diuresis cystometry was performed in six continent adult female Beagle dogs prior to surgical implantation of telemetric and electromyographic devices. In the first phase of the telemetric study, continuous recordings were performed over 8 days and nights. Abdominal, intravesical and detrusor threshold pressures (Pdet th), voided volume (Vv), urethral smooth muscle electrical activity and involuntary detrusor contractions (IDC) were measured during the bladder filling phase and during micturition episodes.
Vv recorded during telemetry was significantly lower than bladder volume obtained by diuresis cystometry. Repeatability of telemetric measurements was greater for observations recorded at night. IDC frequency and Pdet th were both lower and Vv was higher at night compared to values recorded during daytime.
In the second phase of the telemetric study, phenylpropanolamine, oestriol, bethanechol, oxybutynin or duloxetine were administered orally for 15 days. For each drug, continuous recordings were performed overnight for 12 hours on days 0, 1, 8 and 15. Electromyographic urethral activity was significantly increased 8 days after oestriol or duloxetine administration. No significant changes in bladder function were observed at any time point.
In dogs, the high repeatability of nocturnal telemetric recordings indicates that this technique could provide more informative results for urologic research. Urethral smooth muscle electrical activity appears to be modified by administration of drugs with urethral tropism. In this pilot telemetric study, bladder function was not affected by oral administration of urological drugs at their recommended clinical dosages. Experimental studies, (pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic) and clinical studies are warranted to further define the effects of these drugs on vesico-urethral function in dogs.