The LSmean (±S.E.M) relative mRNA expression of the VEGF-A , IL-8 and TNF-α genes in bronchoalveolar lavage cells of unchallenged and challenged healthy and recurrent airway obstruction-affected horses. The relative expression is normalized to the geometric mean of reference genes. This experiment is representative of one protocol performed with five heaves-affected horses and four healthy horses (*P < 0.05;**P < 0.01; NS = no significant; RAO: recurrent airway obstruction).
Toussaint et al. BMC Veterinary Research 2012 8:64 doi:10.1186/1746-6148-8-64