Recommended version of the decision tree for treating metabolic acidosis in calves with neonatal diarrhea in bovine field practice. Examination of the posture/ability to stand includes lifting of the animal if it is not able or willing to stand up. The term enophthalmos is defined as a visible gap between the eyeball and caruncula lacrimalis, which corresponds to a measured eyeball recession of at least 3–4 millimeters.
Trefz et al. BMC Veterinary Research 2012 8:238 doi:10.1186/1746-6148-8-238