Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Experimental H-type and L-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cattle: observation of two clinical syndromes and diagnostic challenges

Timm Konold1*, Gemma E Bone1, Derek Clifford2, Melanie J Chaplin1, Saira Cawthraw3, Michael J Stack1 and Marion M Simmons1

Author Affiliations

1 TSE Department, Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency Weybridge, New Haw, Addlestone, UK

2 Animal Services Unit, Specialist Scientific Support Department, Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency Weybridge, New Haw, Addlestone, UK

3 Central Sequencing Unit, Specialist Scientific Support Department, Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency Weybridge, New Haw, Addlestone, UK

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BMC Veterinary Research 2012, 8:22  doi:10.1186/1746-6148-8-22

Published: 8 March 2012

Additional files

Additional file 1:

H-type BSE (H1) H-type BSE-inoculated steer at 17 mpi (prior to cull), 'nervous form'. This steer displays head shyness in the crush (over-reactivity when approached from the front) and tosses its head in response to touching of the head with artery forceps. It displays mildly apprehensive behaviour, characterised by stopping at grooves or avoiding the drain on the floor (note also the mild startle with twitching of the forelimbs after the animal vocalises in the corridor and trots towards the camera). There is mild hind limb hypermetria. It has considerable difficulty in rising, dragging its body along the floor of the pen over a time period of approximately 2 minutes (rising score 2).

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Additional file 2:

L-type BSE (L1) L-type BSE-inoculated steer at 17 mpi (prior to cull), 'nervous form'. This steer displays head shyness in the crush (head shaking or tossing when observed from the front) and over-reactivity to testing of the menace response and touching of the head and upper neck with artery forceps. It refuses to walk towards the end of the corridor ('freezes') on its own but runs with hypermetric hind limb movements in this direction when other cattle are led out. It has considerable difficulty in rising (animal marked by arrow) with dragging its body along the floor of the pen (rising score 2).

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Additional file 3:

Control (CO1) Control steer (not inoculated) at 23 months after inoculation of test groups. This steer mainly keeps its head towards the floor of the crush during cranial nerve assessments and there is only very mild over-reaction to testing of the menace response. It is willing to run along the corridor, only stopping briefly to inspect the door. It gets up without difficulty in the pen.

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Additional file 4:

H-type BSE (H4a) H-type BSE-inoculated steer at 18 and 20 mpi, 'nervous form'. This steer startles and runs away after approaching and sniffing the camera at the door whereas the superimposed clip shows a control steer, observed in the pen for the first time at the same day, slightly backs off after sniffing the camera. Two months later it stands on its own in the other half of the pen and displays a spontaneous whole body flinch.

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Additional file 5:

H-type BSE (H4b) H-type BSE-inoculated steer at 21 mpi (prior to cull), 'dull form'. This steer stood for considerable time in the pen with low head carriage whilst its pen mates were lying ruminating in the other half of the pen. It does not rise upon entering the pen when surrounded by its pen mates but rises when the rump is touched, dragging its body along the floor (rising score 2). Cranial nerve assessments are well tolerated. Its behaviour in the corridor is unremarkable (no signs of apprehension). It displays mild hind limb hypometria, best seen when the animal turns at the end of the corridor.

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