Evidence of independence between maternal and foetus QRS events; Panel a: example of foetus QRS occurring just before the maternal QRS; Panel b: example of foetus QRS occurring just after the maternal QRS. The top trace in both panels depicts foetus PCG; the solid circle highlights the 1st (loud) cardiac sound and the dashed circle highlights the 2nd (weak) cardiac sound. The second and third traces from the top present the foetus ECG; solid squares highlight the foetus QRS complexes. Maternal ECG (QRS highlighted with dashed rectangles) is depicted in the bottom trace.
Gargiulo et al. BMC Veterinary Research 2012 8:164 doi:10.1186/1746-6148-8-164