Table 1

Summary of the BPHS scores of a batch level report and their typical causes, according to BPEX guidelines [13,14]



Typical Causes

Enzootic pneumonia (EP) like lesion score

EP-like lesions in the anterior lobes of the lungs. The report shows the average score (minimum = zero: no lesions, maximum = 55), for all lungs examined. Each pair of lungs is divided into 7 lobes; the cranial lobes, cardiac lobes, diaphragmatic lobes and a single accessory (intermediate) lobe. Depending on the level of disease, each cranial and cardiac lobe is scored from 0 to 10 and the cranial areas of the diaphragmatic lobes and intermediate lobe are scored from 0 to 5.

M. hyopneumoniae

Viral-like pneumonia

Lesions of viral pneumonia: lobular pattern with consolidation, rubbery texture, congestion or collapsed areas. Percentage of pigs and the number of individuals with viral-like pneumonia is given.

Porcine reproductive and respiratory virus (PRRSV), swine influenza (SI), porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2)

Chronic pleuropneumonia

Bronchopneumonia with overlying pleurisy, usually affecting caudal or middle lung lobes. A severe form of pleurisy usually associated with APP. The percentage of pigs and the number of individuals with chronic pleuropneumonia-like lesions. The presence of old lesions suggests past infection and variable immunity in herds with endemic pleuropneumonia.


Acute pleuropneumonia

As above but fresh, active lesions. The report presents the percentage of pigs and the actual number of individuals with acute pleuropneumonia-like lesions. The presence of new, active lesions indicates recent infection.


Mild or localised pleurisy

The percentage and number of pigs with any discrete area of parietal or visceral pleurisy. The affected area of the lung may be stuck to the chest wall. The presence of pleurisy provides evidence that a lung infection had occurred prior to slaughter.

Haemophilus parasuis Mycoplasma spp., Actinobacillus spp., Streptococcus spp. Bordetella bronchiseptica, etc.

Severe or extensive pleurisy

The percentage and number of pigs with pleurisy involving in excess of approximately 20% of the total lung area, is classed as extensive.

as above, but more likely to be APP


The number and percentage of pigs with pericarditis (inflammation of the pericardium).

Haemophilus parasuis and other causes of pleurisy

Holt et al. BMC Veterinary Research 2011 7:82   doi:10.1186/1746-6148-7-82

Open Data