Table 2

Prevalence (%) of DSM-IV/CIDI major depressive episodes in the 18 countries participating in the WMH surveys a

Screen positive, mean ± SE

Lifetime prevalence, mean ± SE

Lifetime/

Screen positive, ± mean ± SE

12-month prevalence, mean ± SE

12-month/

Screen positive, mean ± SE

12-month/

lifetime, mean ± SE

Age of onset, median (IQR)b


I. High-income


Belgium

49.4 ± 2.5

14.1 ± 1.0

28.5 ± 1.9

5.0 ± 0.5

10.0 ± 1.0

35.2(2.8

29.4 (20.9 to 41.3)


France

65.0 ± 1.7

21.0 ± 1.1

32.3 ± 1.4

5.9 ± 0.6

9.0 ± 0.9

27.9(2.6

28.4 (19.3 to 38.9)


Germany

43.1 ± 1.4

9.9 ± 0.6

23.0 ± 1.3

3.0 ± 0.3

6.9 ± 0.6

30.1 ± 2.1

27.6 (18.6 to 39.6)


Israel

45.1 ± 0.8

10.2 ± 0.5

22.6 ± 1.0

6.1 ± 0.4

13.5 ± 0.8

59.6 ± 2.3

25.5 (18.1 to 38.5)


Italy

44.9 ± 1.7

9.9 ± 0.5

22.1 ± 1.0

3.0 ± 0.2

6.7 ± 0.5

30.2 ± 1.9

27.7 (19.1 to 39.1)


Japan

29.9 ± 0.8

6.6 ± 0.5

22.2 ± 1.4

2.2 ± 0.4

7.4 ± 1.2

33.3 ± 4.2

30.1 (20.8 to 45.3)


Netherlands

53.2 ± 1.6

17.9 ± 1.0

33.6 ± 1.8

4.9 ± 0.5

9.2 ± 1.0

27.3 ± 2.6

27.2 (19.3 to 39.5)


New Zealand

61.9 ± 0.6

17.8 ± 0.4

28.7 ± 0.6

6.6 ± 0.3

10.6 ± 0.5

37.0 ± 1.5

24.2 (16.1 to 34.5)c


Spain

37.7 ± 1.0

10.6 ± 0.5

28.2 ± 1.2

4.0 ± 0.3

10.6 ± 0.8

37.5 ± 1.9

30.0 (19.7 to 44.3)


United States

62.0 ± 0.9

19.2 ± 0.5

30.9 ± 0.7

8.3 ± 0.3

13.3 ± 0.5

43.1 ± 1.2

22.7 (15.1 to 34.6)


Total

52.3 ± 0.4

14.6 ± 0.2

28.1 ± 0.3

5.5 ± 0.1

10.6 ± 0.2

37.7 ± 0.7

25.7 (17.3 to 37.2)


II. Low- to middle-income


Sao Pâulo, Brazil

66.0 ± 1.0

18.4 ± 0.8

27.9 ± 1.1

10.4 ± 0.6

15.8 ± 0.8

56.7 ± 1.5

24.3 (17.2 to 35.8)


Colombia

58.6 ± 1.1

13.3 ± 0.6

22.6 ± 1.0

6.2 ± 0.4

10.6 ± 0.7

46.7 ± 2.6

23.5 (15.6 to 33.6)


Pondicherry, India

25.0 ± 0.9

9.0 ± 0.5

35.9 ± 1.5

4.5 ± 0.4

18.0 ± 1.4

50.0 ± 3.0

31.9 (24.5 to 42.7)


Lebanon

57.7 ± 1.8

10.9 ± 0.9

18.9 ± 1.3

5.5 ± 0.7

9.5 ± 1.2

50.0 ± 3.7

23.8 (17.5 to 32.8)


Mexico

40.6 ± 1.1

8.0 ± 0.5

19.6 ± 1.2

4.0 ± 0.3

9.8 ± 0.8

50.0 ± 2.7

23.5 (16.7 to 34.0)


Shenzen, China

54.6 ± 0.9

6.5 ± 0.4

12.0 ± 0.7

3.8 ± 0.3

6.9 ± 0.5

58.0 ± 2.6

18.8 (14.9 to 23.4)


South Africa

56.1 ± 1.3

9.8 ± 0.7

17.4 ± 1.2

4.9 ± 0.4

8.6 ± 0.8

49.6 ± 2.7

22.3 (15.8 to 33.8)


Ukraine

82.4 ± 1.1

14.6 ± 0.7

17.7 ± 0.8

8.4 ± 0.6

10.2 ± 0.7

57.8 ± 2.2

27.8 (18.7 to 39.6)


Total

54.1 ± 0.4

11.1 ± 0.2

19.8 ± 0.4

5.9 ± 0.2

10.5 ± 0.3

53.3 ± 0.9

24.0 (17.0 to 34.8)


aAssessed in part I sample. Prevalence for the pooled samples (developed and developing) include respondents ages 18+. Prevalence for individual countries are assessed for the total sample in the country.

bIQR, interquartile range.

Bromet et al. BMC Medicine 2011 9:90   doi:10.1186/1741-7015-9-90

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