Cross-national epidemiology of DSM-IV major depressive episode
1 Department of Psychiatry, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Putnam Hall - South Campus, Stony Brook, NY 11794-8790, NY, USA
2 Section of Psychiatric Epidemiology - LIM 23, Institute of Psychiatry, University of São Paulo Medical School, Sãu Paulo, Brazil
3 Department of Health Care Policy, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA
4 Health Services Research Unit, IMIM (Hospital del Mar Research Institute), Barcelona, Spain and CIBER en Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Barcelona, Spain
5 IRCCS Centro S. Giovanni di Dio Fatebenefratelli, Brescia, Italy
6 Netherlands Institute of Mental Health and Addiction, Utrecht, The Netherlands
7 Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Leuven, Belgium
8 Shenzhen Institute of Mental Health & Shenzhen Kangning Hospital, Shenzhen, China
9 Department of Clinical Psychology, Hiroshima International University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Japan
10 Department of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology, Saint George Hospital University Medical Center, Balamand University Medical School and the Institute for Development, Research, Advocacy and Applied Care (IDRAAC), Beirut, Lebanon
11 Directorate General of Health Services, New Delhi, India
12 Ukrainian Psychiatric Association, Kiev, Ukraine
13 Hôpital Lariboisière Fernand Widal, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris INSERM U 705, CNRS UMR 7157 University Paris Diderot and Paris Descartes Paris, France
14 Research & Planning, Mental Health Services Ministry of Health, Jerusalem, Israel
15 Institute of Social Medicine, Occupational Health and Public Health University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany
16 National Institute of Psychiatry, Mexico City, Mexico
17 The University of Tasmania Statewide and Clinical Director Dept of Health and Human Services New Town, Tasmania, Australia
18 Instituto Colombiano del Sistema Nervioso, Bogota D.C., Colombia
19 Section of Psychiatric Epidemiology, Institute of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
20 Department of Society, Human Development and Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA
Citation and License
BMC Medicine 2011, 9:90 doi:10.1186/1741-7015-9-90Published: 26 July 2011
Major depression is one of the leading causes of disability worldwide, yet epidemiologic data are not available for many countries, particularly low- to middle-income countries. In this paper, we present data on the prevalence, impairment and demographic correlates of depression from 18 high and low- to middle-income countries in the World Mental Health Survey Initiative.
Major depressive episodes (MDE) as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DMS-IV) were evaluated in face-to-face interviews using the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Data from 18 countries were analyzed in this report (n = 89,037). All countries surveyed representative, population-based samples of adults.
The average lifetime and 12-month prevalence estimates of DSM-IV MDE were 14.6% and 5.5% in the ten high-income and 11.1% and 5.9% in the eight low- to middle-income countries. The average age of onset ascertained retrospectively was 25.7 in the high-income and 24.0 in low- to middle-income countries. Functional impairment was associated with recency of MDE. The female: male ratio was about 2:1. In high-income countries, younger age was associated with higher 12-month prevalence; by contrast, in several low- to middle-income countries, older age was associated with greater likelihood of MDE. The strongest demographic correlate in high-income countries was being separated from a partner, and in low- to middle-income countries, was being divorced or widowed.
MDE is a significant public-health concern across all regions of the world and is strongly linked to social conditions. Future research is needed to investigate the combination of demographic risk factors that are most strongly associated with MDE in the specific countries included in the WMH.