Table 3

Changes in primary and secondary outcomes

Variable

Studies (#)

Participants (#)

ES (#)

(95% CI)

Q(p)

I2(%)

95% PI


Primary Outcomes

- TC (mg/dl)

6

559

8

-15.5 (-20.3, -10.7)a

221.0 (<0.001)a

96.8

-32.1, 1.1

- HDL-C (mg/dl)

6

559

8

-0.5 (-4.0, 3.1)

1678.9 (<0.001)a

99.6

-13.6, 12.6

- TC:HDL-C

4

429

6

-0.4 (-0.7, -0.2)a

11.5 (0.04)a

56.7

-1.0, 0.1

- LDL-C (mg/dl)

6

559

8

-9.2 (-12.7, -5.8)a

143.5 (<0.001)a

95.1

-21, 2.5

- TG (mg/dl)

6

559

8

-10.6 (-17.2, -4.0)a

691.9 (<0.001)a

99.0

-32.5, 11.3

Secondary Outcomes

- Body weight (kg)

5

481

7

-5.7 (-7.4, -4.1)a

26.7 (<0.001)a

77.5

-11.0, -0.5

- BMI (kg/m2)

4

217

4

-1.5 (-2.1, -0.8)a

11.7 (0.008)a

74.3

-4.2, 1.3

- WHR

3

312

4

-0.01(-0.015, 0.003)

4.0 (0.3)

25.8

-0.03, 0.02

- VO2max(ml.kg-1.min-1)

4

384

5

5.1 (2.7, 7.5)a

33.2 (<0.001)a

88.0

-3.9, 14.1

- Kilocalories (total)

4

450

6

-283 (-453, -114)a

17.5 (0.004)a

71.5

-805, 238

- Carbohydrates (%)

4

323

5

6.0 (4.0, 8.0)a

18.6 (0.001)a

78.4

-1.1, 13.2

- Total fat (%)

5

493

7

-7.6 (-9.8, -5.3)a

54.1 (<0.001)a

88.9

-15.3, 0.2

- Saturated fat (%)

4

348

5

-4.2 (-5.4, -3.1)a

24.3 (<0.001)a

83.6

-8.5, 0.1

- Cholesterol (mg)

3

386

5

-115 (-148, -83)a

10.3 (<0.04)a

61.2

-222, -9.0


Notes: ES, effect sizes; #, number in which data were available for; (95% CI), mean and 95% confidence interval; Q(p), Cochran's Q statistic for heterogeneity and alpha value; I2 (%), percent inconsistency statistic; 95% PI, 95% prediction intervals for a new study; astatistically significant; TC, total cholesterol; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; TC:HDL-C, TC:HDL-C ratio; LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; TG, triglycerides; BMI, body mass index; WHR, waist to hip ratio; VO2max, maximum oxygen consumption; %, percentage of total kilocalorie intake; To convert TC, HDL-C and LDL-C from mg/dl to mmol, divide by 38.46; To convert TG from mg/dl to mmol, divide by 87.72.

Kelley et al. BMC Medicine 2011 9:74   doi:10.1186/1741-7015-9-74

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