Table 1

Characteristics of Included Studies

Study & Year

Country

Participantsa

Exercise

Diet

Lipid Assessment


Hellenius et al. (1993)[43]

Sweden

78 men, 35-60 yrs of age, assigned to an exercise and diet (n = 39) or control (n = 39) group

24-wks of unsupervised and supervised aerobic activity, 2-3x wk, 30-45 min/d, 60%-80% MHR

NCEP Step 1 diet (fat <30% of total kcals, saturated fat <10%, polyunsaturated fat ≤ 10%, monounsaturated fat 10%-15%, carbohydrates 50%-60%, protein 10%-20%, cholesterol <300 mg/d

TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, TG after an overnight fast and avoiding exercise for at least 24-hr

McAuley et al. (2002)[44]

New Zealand

52 men and women, 30-68 years of age assigned to an exercise and diet (n = 29) or control (n = 23) group

16-wks supervised & unsupervised aerobic exercise, 5x wk, 30 min/d

<32% of total kcals from fat, ≤ 11% of total kcals from saturated fat, 14% from monounsaturated fat, 7% from polyunsaturated fat, 50% from carbohydrates, 18% from protein, < 200 mg cholesterol and > 25 g fiber per/d

Fasting TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, TG

Miller et al. (2002)[8]

USA

43 hypertensive, overweight adults, 22 to 70 yrs of age, assigned to either an exercise and diet (n = 20) or control (n = 23) group

9-wks of supervised aerobic exercise (walking or cycle ergometry), 3x wk, 30-45 min/d, 50%-75% MHR

Hypocaloric version (2100 kcals) of DASH diet (18% kcals from protein, 55% from carbohydrate, 6% saturated fat, 13% monounsaturated fat, 8% polyunsaturated fat, 500 mg/d magnesium, 1240 mg/d calcium, 4700 mg/d potassium, 31 g/d fiber, 150 mg/d cholesterol, 100 mmol/d sodium

TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, TG after fasting

Nieman et al. (2002)[10]

USA

44 sedentary obese women, 25-75 yrs of age, assigned to either an exercise and diet (n = 22) or attention control stretching (n = 22) group

12-wks walking, 5x wk (4 supervised, 1 unsupervised), 45 min/d, 60% to 80% MHR

1200-1300 kcals, NCEP Step 1 diet (55% carbohydrate, 30% total fat, ≤ 10% saturated fat, <300 mg/d of cholesterol)

TC, HDL-C, TC/HDL-C, LDL-C, TG

Stefanick et al. (1998)[15]

USA

182 men and women, 30 to 64 yrs of age with low levels of HDL-C and high levels of LDL-C, assigned to either an exercise and diet (n = 91) or control (n = 91) group

52-wks supervised and unsupervised brisk walking and/or jogging, 60 min/d, 3x wk; goal was 10 miles brisk walking wk

NCEP Step 2 diet (< 30% total fat, <7% saturated fat, < 200 mg cholesterol/d)

TC, HDL-C, TC/HDL-C, LDL-C, TG in the morning after a 12 to 16-hr overnight fast and avoiding vigorous physical activity for at least 12 hr

Wood et al. (1991)[45]

USA

160 sedentary, overweight men and women 25 to 49 yrs of age assigned to either an exercise and diet (n = 81) or control (n = 79) group

52-wks supervised brisk walking and jogging, 25-45 min/d, 3x wk, 60% to 80% MHR

NCEP Step 1 diet (55% carbohydrate, 30% total fat, ≤ 10% saturated fat, <300 mg/d of cholesterol)

TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, TG in the morning after a 12 to 16-hr overnight fast and avoiding vigorous physical activity for at least 12 hr


NOTES: Description of groups and all other variables limited to those that met our criteria for inclusion;a Number of participants limited to those in which changes in lipid and lipoprotein data were available; USA, United States of America; yrs, years; wk, week; wks, weeks; min, minutes; kcals, kilocalories; TC, total cholesterol, HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; TG, triglycerides; TC:HDL-C, ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; hr, hour; MHR, maximum heart rate; min/d, minutes per day; NCEP, National Cholesterol Education Program; mg/d, milligrams per day; DASH, Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension.

Kelley et al. BMC Medicine 2011 9:74   doi:10.1186/1741-7015-9-74

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