Table 1

Characteristics of cost-effectiveness models (PneumoADIP, Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO) TriVac, and SUPREMES)

PneumoADIP

PAHO TriVac

SUPREMES


Types of study

CEA and CUA

CEA and CUA

CEA and CUA


Population

Number of live birth of 10 cohorts (secular trend analysis)

Number of births 5 years prior to start of intervention and number of live birth per year

Cross-sectional analysis of entire population


Perspective

Society

Society and government

Healthcare payera


Vaccination

Pneumococcal

Pneumococcal, Rotavirus, Hib

Pneumococcalb


Outcomes

Cost per DALY averted, cost per life year saved

Cost per DALY averted, cost per life saved, cost per life year gained, cost per case averted, cost per hospitalization averted

Cost per QALY gained, cost per life year gained


Time horizon

5 years

5 years

Cross sectional


Diseases captured

Pneumococcal pneumonia, pneumococcal meningitis, invasive NPNM, otitis media

Pneumococcal pneumonia, pneumococcal meningitis, invasive NPNM

Pneumococcal pneumonia, pneumococcal meningitis, pneumococcal bacteremia, otitis mediac


Herd immunity

Included only in vaccine-targeted cohorts; no switch 'off' and 'on'

Included only in vaccine-targeted cohorts; can be switched 'off' and 'on'

Included for vaccine targeted and non-targeted population; can be switched 'off' and 'on'


Serotype replacement

Does not allow an explicit consideration of serotype replacement, (allows for serotype adjustment)

Allows for an explicit direct adjustment for serotype replacement over time

No direct adjustment for serotype replacement over time (the individual component of replacement is included in the direct vaccine effectiveness estimate)


Sequelae

Pneumococcal pneumonia, pneumococcal meningitis, invasive NPNM

Pneumococcal pneumonia, pneumococcal meningitis, invasive NPNM, pneumococcal OM

Pneumococcal meningitis, pneumococcal OM (can be switch 'off' and 'on')


Discounting

3%

3%

No need for discounting


Sensitivity analysis

NR

One-way sensitivity analysisd

One-way sensitivity analysise


aSpecified that the model can add the societal perspective as well when including indirect cost estimates.

bSpecified PCV as Synflorix™ (10-valent pneumococcal Haemophilus influenzae protein D-conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV)).

cSpecified that other sensitivity analyses including a probabilistic one were under development. Currently, we can only perform one-way sensitivity analysis of some parameters (for example, discount, age weighted, perspective, vaccine price, percentage decline in price).

dModel has an option to include the vaccine effect in preventing otitis media due to non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi).

eModel can vary assumptions and determine its effects on results. These assumptions changes include AOM, AOM sequelae, NTHi in invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), NTHi in community acquired pneumonia (CAP), herd effect, and varying vaccine coverage. The model set 20% range change under and above the baseline values for most of the variables in the model. The model specifies probabilistic sensitivity analysis to be performed with @Risk software initiating acceptability curve http://www.palisade.com/risk/ webcite.

AOM = acute OM; CEA = cumulative effects analysis; CUA = cost utility analysis; DALY = disability-adjusted life years; NPNM = non-pneumonia non-meningitis; OM = otitis media; QALY = quality-adjusted life years.

Chaiyakunapruk et al. BMC Medicine 2011 9:53   doi:10.1186/1741-7015-9-53

Open Data