Table 2

Neuromuscular training programmea

Exercises and repetitions

Aim


Exercise 1

One-leg standing with a stick

20 repetitions, 10 with each leg

Improvement in shoulder and neck posture and mobility

Enhancement of balance and coordination

Exercise 2

Squat exercises with a stick using, respectively, two legs or one leg

16 repetitions on two legs

16 repetitions, eight each with one leg

Enhancement of control of lumbar NZ

Increase in lower-extremity muscular strength

Enhancement of balance

Exercise 3

Horizontal side support

Stage 1 with flexed knees: five repetitions with 5 seconds of static holding on alternating sides (5 + 5)

Stage 2 with straight knees: five circles from side to side with 5-second hold for each position (side, belly and side)

Enhancement of co-contraction of trunk muscles

Improvement in lower-back and trunk stability

Increase in trunk muscular endurance

Exercise 4

Jumping from side to side

Rhythm: four slow jumps + eight fast jumps

Exercise time: 60 seconds

Enhancement of coordination and agility

Enhancement of control of lumbar NZ

Increase in lower-extremity muscular endurance

Exercise 5

Modified pushups

As many repetitions as possible

Exercise time: 60 seconds

Improvement of upper-extremity extensor strength

Enhancement of co-contraction of trunk muscles

Improvement in lower-back and trunk stability

Exercise 6

Stretching exercise for hip flexor muscles

10-second stretch done five times on alternating sides

Increase in extensibility of hip flexor and side muscles

Increase in lower-extremity muscular strength

Exercise 7

Hamstring exercise on the knees

Eight to 12 repetitions

Increase in eccentric capacity of hamstring muscles

Enhancement of trunk motor control

Exercise 8

Stretching exercise with a stick for hamstring muscles

Three repetitions of 20-second stretches each with alternating legs

Increase in extensibility of hamstring and calf muscles

Enhancement of control of lumbar NZ

Exercise 9

Upper-body rotation while lying on one's side; a "yoga stretch"

Duration of 60 seconds for each side

Improvement in rotational mobility of thoracic spine

Increase in extensibility of pectoral muscles


aNZ, neutral zone.

Parkkari et al. BMC Medicine 2011 9:35   doi:10.1186/1741-7015-9-35

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