Table 2

Vasoactive effect of adipokinesa

Adipokines

Vasoactive effect

References


Superoxide anion

Vasoconstriction through Ca2+ sensitization; impairs EC-dependent relaxation by decreasing NO bioavailability; enhances vasoconstriction to perivascular nerve activation by electrical field stimulation

[18,19,29]

Hydrogen peroxide

EC-dependent and EC-independent vasorelaxation mediated by opening KCa, Kv and KATP channels; Ca2+-dependent and Ca2+-independent vasoconstriction

[20,21,23-27]

Leptin

Vasoconstriction due to sympathetic nervous system activation; EC-dependent and EC-independent vasorelaxation

[31-34,38,39]

TNFα

EC-dependent and EC-independent vasorelaxation; triggers ET-1- and Ang-induced vasoconstriction; impairs EC-dependent vasorelaxation due to decreased NO or increased ROS production; reduces vasorelaxing effect of PVAT due to increased ROS production

[50,52,53,57-59]

IL-6

EC-independent vasorelaxation; reduces vasorelaxing effect of PVAT due to increased ROS production; impairs endothelial function due to increased ROS and decreased NO production

[59,66,67,72]

Apelin

NO-dependent vasorelaxation; EC-independent vasoconstriction

[76-78,80]

Adiponectin

NO-dependent vasorelaxation mediated by opening Kv channels

[59,90,91]

Omentin

EC-dependent and EC-independent vasorelaxation

[100]

Visfatin

NO-dependent vasorelaxation

[107]

ADRF

Vasorelaxation through opening of KATP, KCNQ or KCa channels depending on the species

[6,92,112,114,115]

Ang II

Vasoconstriction via binding on AT1 receptors

[124]

Resistin

No effect on contractility of blood vessels; impairs endothelial function due to increased ET-1 production and decreased NO production

[135,144]


aEC, endothelial cell; NO, nitric oxide; KCa channels, Ca2+-activated K+ channels; Kv channels, voltage-dependent K+ channels; KATP channels, ATP-sensitive K+ channels; TNFα, tumor necrosis factor α; ET-1, endothelin 1; Ang, angiotensinogen; ROS, reactive oxygen species; PVAT, perivascular adipose tissue; IL-6, interleukin 6; Ang II, angiotensin II; AT1, angiotensin type 1; ADRF, adipocyte-derived relaxing factor.

Maenhaut and Van de Voorde BMC Medicine 2011 9:25   doi:10.1186/1741-7015-9-25

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