Increased levels of transcripts for pattern recognition receptors in the mucosa from gluten-sensitive patients (GS) but not celiac disease patients (CD). Expression of the indicated genes encoding for Toll-like receptors TLR1, TLR2 and TLR4 was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay (see Methods). Boxes represent the median (interquartile range) and whiskers represent the range of RNA levels relative to an 18S housekeeping gene in 8 GS, 12 CD and 5 dyspeptic controls (DC). *P < 0.05 relative to DC (Mann-Whitney U test).
Sapone et al. BMC Medicine 2011 9:23 doi:10.1186/1741-7015-9-23