Table 3

The analogy between diagnostic tests and clinical trials.

Diagnostic testing

Clinical trials


Absence of disease

Truth of null hypothesis

Presence of disease

Falsity of null hypothesis

Cutoff between positive and negative results

Significance level, α

Test result

P-value

Negative result

P-value > α

Positive result

P-value < α

Sensitivity

Power

False positive rate (1-specificity)

Significance level, α

Prior probability of disease

Prior probability of a difference between groups

Posterior probability of disease, given test result

Posterior probability of a difference between groups, given study results


Westover et al. BMC Medicine 2011 9:20   doi:10.1186/1741-7015-9-20

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