Table 8

Effect sizes for functional activity

Time-point

Study

Measure used

Augmented therapy

Standard therapy

Mean difference

No. subjects

Mean (SD)

No. subjects

Mean (SD)

Effect size

[95% CI]


Outcome

6 weeks after start therapy

Donaldson

ARAT

10

41.8 (17.8)

8

45.0 (14.0)

3.2

[-17.9,11.5]

20 weeks after start therapy

Kwakkel

ARAT

29

9.0 (28.9)

34

0.0 (1.5)

9.0

[-1.5,19.5]

5 weeks after start therapy

Lincoln

ARAT

87

1.0 (25.9)

90

5.0 (28.2)

-4.0

[-12.0,4.0]

Subtotal - ARAT

126

132

0.1

[-5.7,6.0]

6 weeks after start therapy

Donaldson

9 Hole Peg Test

10

0.2 (0.2)

8

0.2 (0.1)

0.0a

[-0.1,0.1]

5 weeks after start therapy

Lincoln

10 Hole Peg Test

87

0.0 (19.3)

90

0.0 (41.5)

0.0a

[-9.5,9.5]

5 weeks after start therapy

Lincoln

Rivermead arm

87

3.0 (5.9)

90

4.0 (5.2)

-1.0

[-2.6,0.6]

6 weeks after start therapy

Cooke

Rivermead mobility

31

36.6 (10.4)

32

34.6 (10.8)

2.0

[-3.2,7.2]

6 weeks after start therapy

Cooke

Walk 0.8 m/s or more

31

11

32

4

3.9c

[1.1,13.9]

6 weeks after start therapy

Cooke

Comfort walk speed

32

0.6 (0.5)

31

0.3 (0.4)

0.3

[0.1,0.5]

20 weeks after start therapy

Kwakkel

Comfort walk speed

26

0.7 (0.5)

34

0.4 (0.4)

0.3

[0.1,0.5]

Subtotal - comfort walk speed

58

65

0.3

[0.1,0.5]

20 weeks after start therapy

Kwakkel

Max walk speed

26

0.9 (0.7)

34

0.5 (0.6)

0.4

[0.1,0.7]

20 weeks after start therapy

Kwakkel

FAC

29

4 (1.5)

34

3 (2.2)

1.0

[0.1,2.0]

6 weeks after start therapy

Partridge

5 metre walk time

33

49.2 (32.0)

22

39.9 (29.9)

9.3

[-7.3,25.9]

5 weeks after start therapy

Lincoln

Rivermead Gross Function

87

3.0 (4.4)

87

5.0 (5.2)

-2.0

[-3.4,-0.6]

Follow-up 1

26 weeks after start therapy

Kwakkel

ARAT

29

4.0 (28.2)

34

0.0 (1.85)

4.0

[-6.3,14.3]

3 months after stroke

Rodgers

ARAT

54

53.0 (27.4)

51

54.0 (41.5)

-1.0

[-14.5,12.5]

Subtotal - ARAT

83

85

2.2

[-6.0, 10.4]

18 weeks after start therapy

Cooke

Rivermead mobility

28

36.6 (9.8)

23

39.7 (5.7)

-3.1

[-7.4,1.2]

3 months after start therapy

GAPS

Rivermead mobility

32

9.7 (3.3)

34

8.1 (3.6)

1.6

[-0.1,3.3]

Subtotal - Rivermead mobility

60

57

1.0

[-0.6,2.5]

18 weeks after start therapy

Cooke

Comfort walk speed

27

0.6 (0.5)

23

0.4 (0.4)

0.2

[-0.1,0.5]

26 weeks after start therapy

Kwakkel

Comfort walk speed

26

0.6 (0.5)

34

0.4 (0.4)

0.2

[-0.0,0.4]

Subtotal - Comfort walk speed

59

61

0.2

[-0.1,0.4]

3 months after stroke

Rodgers

Frenchay Arm Test

54

4.0 (2.2)

51

4.0 (3.7)

0.0

[-1.2,1.2]

3 months after start therapy

Lincoln

Rivermead arm

84

3.0 (5.9)

84

5.0 (5.2)

-2.0

[-3.7,-0.3]

6 months after start therapy

Partridge

5 metre walk time

27

35.8 (16.5)

33

49.4 (32.1)

-13.6

[-26.2,-1.0]

3 months after start therapy

Lincoln

Rivermead Gross Function

84

5.0 (5.2)

84

6.0 (5.9)

-1.0

[-2.7,0.7]

26 weeks after start therapy

Kwakkel

FAC

26

5.0 (0.7)

34

4.0 (2.2)

1.0

[0.2,1.8]

18 weeks after start therapy

Cooke

Walk 0.8 m/s or more

27

10

23

4

2.8

[0.8,10.6]

26 weeks after start therapy

Kwakkel

Max walk speed

26

0.9 (0.7)

34

0.6 (0.6)

0.3

[-0.0,0.6]

Follow-up 2

6 months after start therapy

Lincoln

ARAT

81

3.0 (28.9)

81

19.0 (33.3)

-16.0

[-25.6,-6.4]

52 weeks after start therapy

Kwakkel

ARAT

28

6.0 (31.3)

33

1.0 (21.1)

5.00

[-8.6,18.7]

6 months after stroke

Rodgers

ARAT

48

55.0 (31.9)

48

56.0 (23.7)

-1.0

[-12.2,10.2]

Subtotal - ARAT

157

162

-6.4

[-12.8,0.0]

6 months after start therapy

Lincoln

10 Hole Peg Test

81

0 (40.7)

81

0 (45.2)

0.0

[-13.3,13.3]

6 months after stroke

Rodgers

Frenchay Arm Test

48

5.0 (3.0)

48

4 (3.0)

1.0

[-0.2,2.2]

6 months after start therapy

Lincoln

Rivermead arm

81

4.0 (6.7)

81

6.0 (5.9)

-2.0

[-4.0,-0.1]

6 months after start therapy

Lincoln

Rivermead Gross Function

81

6.0 (5.9)

81

7.0 (3.7)

-1.0

[-2.5,0.5]

52 weeks after start therapy

Kwakkel

Max walk speed

25

0.9 (0.6)

33

0.7 (0.6)

0.2

[-0.1,0.5]

52 weeks after start therapy

Kwakkel

FAC

25

5 (0.7)

33

4 (1.48)

1.0

[0.4,1.6]

6 months after start therapy

GAPS

Rivermead mobility

30

10.2 (3.1)

34

9.1 (4.0)

1.1

[-0.6,2.8]

52 weeks after start therapy

Kwakkel

Comfort walk speed

25

0.6 (0.5)

33

0.5 (0.4)

0.1

[-0.1,0.3]


a = fixed effect model used; b = random effect model used; c = odds ratio used; FU = Follow-up; * = = < 0.05; ARAT = Action Research Arm Test; FAC = Functional Ambulation Category

Cooke et al. BMC Medicine 2010 8:60   doi:10.1186/1741-7015-8-60

Open Data