Table 3 

Included studies design, participants and attrition 

Study 
Design 
Participants 
Attrition (cumulative) 

Number & gender 
Mean (SD) age (years) 
Stroke lesioned hemisphere 
Stroke classification 
Mean (SD) time after stroke (days) 

Control 
Extra 
Control 
Extra 
Control 
Extra 
Control 
Extra 
Control 
Extra 
Control 
Extra 



Cooke 2009 
Multicentre Observer blind RCT 
38 (21 M) 
35 (22 M) 
66.4 (13.7) 
67.5 (11.3) 
17 right 
13 right 
All anterior circulation stroke 
36.8 (22.5) 
32.4 (21.3) 
7 by 6 weeks 21 by 6 weeks 
3 by 6 weeks 10 by 12 weeks 

Donaldson 2009 
Single centre Observer blind RCT 
10 (5 M) 
10 (5 M) 
72.7 (14.5) 
73.0 (8.6) 
5 right 
4 right 
All anterior circulation stroke 
13.4 (4.4) 
25.6 (15.5) 
2 by 6 weeks 7 by 12 weeks 
0 by 6 weeks 4 by 12 weeks 

GAPS 2004 
Multicentre Observer blind RCT 
35 (17 M) 
35 (24 M) 
67 (10) 
68 (11) 
15 right 
15 right 
TACI = 7 PACI = 18 LACI = 8 POCI = 1 unsure = 1 
TACI = 6 PACI = 15 LACI = 10 POCI = 2 unsure = 2 
25 days (range 671) 
0 by 4 weeks 1 by 3 months 1 by 6 months 
1 by 4 weeks 3 by 3 months 4 by 6 months 

Lincoln 1999 
Single centre Observer blind RCT 
95 (45 M) 
94 (51 M) 
Median 73 (IQR 6480) 
Median 73 (IQR 6581) 
38 right 
47 right 
TACI = 7 PACI = 29 LACI = 13 POCI = 0 unsure = 46 
TACI = 9 PACI = 31 LACI = 11 POCI = 0 unsure = 43 
15 weeks after stroke 
5 by 5 weeks 11 by 3 months 14 by 6 months 
7 by 5 weeks 10 by 3 months 13 by 6 months 

Kwakkel 1999 & 2002 
Multicentre Observer blind RCT 
37 (14 M) 
Arm group 33 (16 M) 
64.1 (15) 
Arm group 69 (9.8) 
24 right 
Arm group 19 right 
TACI = 25 PACI = 9 LACI = 3 POCI = 0 unsure = 0 
Arm group TACI = 19 PACI = 11 LACI = 3 POCI = 0 unsure = 0 
7.5 (2.9) 
Arm group 7.2 (2.8) 
3 by 20 weeks 3 by 26 weeks 4 by 52 weeks 
Arm group 4 by 20 weeks 4 by 26 weeks 5 by 52 weeks 
Leg group 21 (13 M) 
Leg group 64.5 (9.7) 
Leg group 18 right 
Leg group TACI = 17 PACI = 13 LACI = 1 POCI = 0 unsure = 0 
Leg group 7.0 (2.5) 
Leg group 5 by 20 weeks 5 by 26 weeks 6 by 52 weeks 

Partridge 2000 
Single centre Observer blind RCT 
60 
54 
76.5 (range 60  90) 
53 right 
No data provided in paper 
No data provided in paper 
4 by 6 weeks 11 by 6 months 
2 by 6 weeks 10 by 6 months 

(52 M) 

Rodgers 2003 
Single centre Observer blind RCT 
61 (30 M) 
62 (28 M) 
Median 75 (no range provided) 
Median 74 (no range provided) 
35 right 
34 right 
TACI = 13 PACI = 17 LACI = 29 POCI = 2 unsure = 0 
TACI = 8 PACI = 17 LACI = 34 POCI = 3 unsure = 0 
Median of 5 days after stroke 
10 by 3 months 13 by 6 months 
8 by 3 months 14 by 6 months 



Cooke et al. BMC Medicine 2010 8:60 doi:10.1186/17417015860 