Table 1

Characteristics of trials included in the meta-analysis

Trial; Location

Study design; treatment/control groups

Dosage; duration

Active ingredients per daily dosage

Mean age; mean BMI

N treatment/control

Mean SBP (SD) in mmHg at start/end of treatment versus control

Mean DBP (SD) in mmHg at start/end of treatment versus control


Taubert et al. [10]; Germany

Crossovera,b

100 g/d;

500 mg polyphenols

59.5 yr;

13/13

Cocoa: 153.4 (4.4)/148.6 (2.4);

Cocoa: 84.5 (4.6)/82.9 (4.6);

Dark/white chocolate

14 d

24.1

Control: 153.6 (4.4)/154.0 (3.6)

Control: 84.2 (4.2)/84.5 (4.3)

Murphy et al. [15]; Australia

Parallel;

6 tablets/d

234 mg flavanols;

43.5 yr;

13/15

Cocoa: 118 (13)/120 (12);

Cocoa: 78 (12)/77 (10);

High/low flavanol cocoa tablets

28 d

Control: 6.4 mg

26.0

Control: 116 (9)/119 (8)

Control: 76 (8)/76 (7)

Engler [11]; USA

Parallel;

46 g/d;

213 mg procyanidins

32.1 yr;

11/10

Cocoa: 121 (17.9)/120 (13.3)

Cocoa: 68.1 (8.3)/69 (6.6)

High/low flavanoid chocolate

14 d

22.6

Control: 112.8 (8.9)/110 (6.3)

Control: 66.1 (5.4)/66 (6.3)

Fraga et al. [12]; USA

Crossovera;

105 g/d;

168 mg flavanols

18.0 yr;

27/28

Cocoa: 123 (11.2)/117 (7.5)

Cocoa: 72 (7.5)/67 (7.5)

Dark/white chocolate

14 d

24.1

Control: 123 (11.2)/121 (7.5)

Control: 71 (7.5)/70 (7.5)

Grassi (normotensive arm) [13]; Italy

Crossovera,b;

100 g/d;

500 mg polyphenols

33.9 yr;

15/15

Cocoa: 112.9 (8.5)/105.9 (6.6)

Cocoa: 74.0 (5.7)/69.8 (4.5)

Dark/white chocolate

15 d

22.6

Control: 113.2 (7.9)/112.7 (7.6)

Control: 73.8 (5.5)/73.5 (5.3)

Grassi et al. (hypertensive arm [13]; Italy

Crossovera,b;

100 g/d;

500 mg polyphenols

43.7 yr;

20/20

Cocoa: 141.3 (4.8)/129.3 (5.7);

Cocoa: 92.4 (3.8)/84.6 (5.6);

Dark/white chocolate

15 d

25.4

Control: 141.1 (5.4)/140.4 (4.6)

Control: 91.8 (4.7)/91.2 (4.7)

Taubert et al. [16]; Germany

Parallela;

6.3 g/d;

30 mg polyphenols

63.6 yr;

22/22

Cocoa: 147.7 (7.1)/144.8 (ng);

Cocoa: 86.4 (4.1)/84.5 (ng);

Dark/white chocolate

126 d (18 wk)

24.0

Control: 147.5 (8.0)/147.6 (ng)

Control: 86.7 (3.8)/86.7 (n.g.)

Crews et al. [17]; USA

Parallela;

37 g/d choc + 11 g/d drink;

754 mg proanthocyanins;

68.8 yr;

45/45

Cocoa: 126.8 (14.3)/123.3 (12.3);

Cocoa: 74.2 (8.2)/73.7 (7.5);

Dark chocolate + cocoa drink/low flavanol chocolate + drink

42 d (6 wk)

Control: 41.1 mg

25.3

Control: 128.6 (14.3)/125.5 (12.7)

Control: 75.0 (8.0)/74.4 (7.7)

Grassi et al. [18]; Italy

Crossovera,b;

100 g/d;

1008 mg phenols

44.8 yr;

19/19

Cocoa: 141.1 (3.4)/137.3 (4.0);

Cocoa: 91.2 (4.2)/87.3 (4.6);

Dark/white chocolate

15 d

26.5

Control: 140.9 (3.4)/140.8 (3.5)

Control: 91.1 (3.7)/90.9 (3.5)

Muniyappa et al. [20]; USA

Crossovera,b;

31 g/d cocoa;

900 mg polyphenols;

51.0 yr;

20/20

Cocoa: 141 (13)/139 (9);

Cocoa: 91 (13)

88 (9);

High flavanol cocoa/low flavanol drink

14 d

Control: 28 mg

33.2

Control: 141 (13)/140 (9)

Control: 91 (13)/87 (9)

Davison et al. (nonexercise arm) [21]; Australia

Parallel;

300 ml drink mix/d;

902 mg flavanols;

44.9 yr;

12/11

Cocoa: 124 (10.4)/122.1 (ng);

Cocoa: 76 (6.2)/74.2 (ng);

High flavanol cocoa/low flavanol drink

84 d (12 wk);

Control: 36 mg

33.6

Control: 124 (5.97)/128.2 (ng)

Control: 77 (5.0)/79.8 (ng)

Davison (exercise arm)[21]; Australia

Parallel;

300 ml drink mix/d;

902 mg flavanols;

45.4 yr;

13/13

Cocoa: 126 (10.4)/127.1 (ng);

Cocoa: 78 (8.7)/77.5 (ng);

High flavanol cocoa/low flavanol drink

84 d (12 wk)

Control: 36 mg

33.4

Control: 121 (13.0)/120.5 (ng)

Control: 74 (5.8)/73.8 (ng)

Shiina et al. [22]; Japan

Parallela;

45 g/d

550 mg polyphenols

29.8 yr;

20/19

Cocoa: 116.4 (12.7)/121.0 (12.7);

Cocoa: 64.7 (11.7)/71.3 (10.8);

Dark/white chocolate

14 d

22.6

Control: 121.6 (14.9)/125.6 (11.4)

Control: 72.2 (13.8)/77.4 (11.6)

Ried et al. (phase 1) [23]; Australia

Parallel;

50 g/d;

750 mg polyphenols

53.1 yr;

11/10

Cocoa: 135.0 (12.5)/133.1 (11.7)c;

Cocoa: 83.6 (10.6)/84.5 (11.6);

Dark chocolate/placebo pill

56 d (8 wk)

26.6

Control: 135.7 (12.4)/130.8 (18.3)c

Control: 77.8 (8.6)/77.3 (10.0)

Monagas et al. [24]; Spain

Crossover;

40g/d + 250 skim milk; control: 500 ml skim milk

495 mg polyphenols

69.7 yr;

42/42

Cocoa: 138 (26)/138 (16);

Cocoa: 84 (13)/82 (13);

Cocoa powder in milk/milk only

28 d

27.6

Control: 138 (26)/135 (24)

Control: 84 (13)/81 (13)


a7-day cocoa/flavanol-free run-in period.

b7-day washout period before crossover.

cMedian.

BMI, body mass index; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; g/d, grams per day; mg; milligrams; ml, millilitre; N, number of participants; ng, not given; SBP, systolic blood pressure; SD, standard deviation; yr, years; wk, weeks

Ried et al. BMC Medicine 2010 8:39   doi:10.1186/1741-7015-8-39

Open Data