Table 1

Psychoeducational studies for depression and/or anxiety.

Study

Aims of study

Study design/intervention

Population

Primary outcome measures

Outcomes of interest

Effect size (cohen's d)a

JQRb


Christensen et al. (2004) [10]

To evaluate the efficacy of a psycho-

education website

RCT; Blue Pages (n = 136) versus attention placebo controls (telephone calls; n = 157)

Format: individual

Community residents (18 to 52 years) with internet access in Canberra, Australia

Center for Epidemiologic Studies

(CES-D).

Compared to controls, intervention participants showed a significant reduction in depressive symptoms as measured with the CES-D at post-test and 12 mo follow up, but not at 6 months

Post-test:c

0.31 (s)

3

Mackinnon et al. (2008) [24]

(BluePages) for community dwelling adults with symptoms of depression

Content: evidence-based medical/psychological depression-information plus weekly telephone calls

Type: Psycho-educational website.

Duration: 6 weeks.

Post-test/follow up points: post-test, 6 and 12 months

Cut-off score: ≥ 16

6 months

0.25 (s)

12 mo:0.37 (m)

2

3

Geisner et al. (2006) [22]

To evaluate the efficacy of a brief, mailed personalized feedback intervention designed to alleviate depressed mood

RCT; brief mailed personalized valid feedback (n = 89) versus attention placebo controls (thank-you letter; n = 88).

Format: individual.

Content: empathic statement, feedback on test-results and advice.

Type: email

Duration: 1 session.

Post-test/follow up points: 1 month

College students (18 years and older) from West coast public university, USA

Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)

Cut-off score: ≥ 14

DSM-IV-based Depression Scale (DDS)

Cut-off score not reported

Compared to controls, intervention participants showed a significant reduction in depressive symptoms as measured with the DDS but not with the BDI

BDI:

0.07 (s)

DDS:

0.07 (s)

Jacob et al. (2002) [23]

To determine the effect of patient education on outcome of depression

RCT; education intervention (n = 34) versus no intervention (n = 32).

Format: individual.

Content: evidence-based medical/psychological depression/anxiety information and advice.

Type: leaflets.

Duration: 1 session.

Post-test/follow up: 2 months

Asian women (18 year and older) in primary care in the UK

General Health Questionnaire (GHQ)

Cut-off score: ≥ 3

Compared to controls, intervention participants showed a significant higher recovery rate of common mental disorders as measured with the GHQ (odds ratio: 2.99, 95% confidence interval: 1.03-1.7)

GHQ:

0.61 (m)d

4

Kawakami et al. (1999) [25]

To examine the effects of mailed advice on reducing psychological distress

RCT; mailed personalized valid feedback and advice (n = 81) versus no intervention (n = 77). Format: individual.

Content: personalized feedback of test-results and advice to reduce psychological distress. Type: email

Duration: 1 session.

Post-test/follow up: 12 mo

Workers employed in a manufacturing plant in Japan

GHQ

Cut-off score not reported

There was no significant difference between controls and intervention participants in GHQ-scores

0.04 (s)

2


a Calculations are between group effect sizes. Where multiple effect sizes for one time point were possible, the largest effect size is reported.

b JQR = Jadad Quality Rating

c s = small; m = moderate

d effect size is based on ITT data

Donker et al. BMC Medicine 2009 7:79   doi:10.1186/1741-7015-7-79

Open Data