Table 6

Post-discharge (PD) outcomes for all causes of confirmed bacterial meningitis (CBM), by study

Reference

Country

No. cases discharged

PD CFR

Average follow-up time, months

Total no. assessed for sequelae

HL (%)

VL (%)

CD (%)

SLD (%)

BP (%)

MI (%)

SZ (%)

Any neuropsychological sequelae (%)

Bacterial pathogens studied


[50]

Tunisia

85

60

82

13%

Spn, Hib, Nm

[41]

Egypt

367

0%

3

367

2%

0%

0%

1%

3%

Spn, Hib, Nm

[35]

Nigeria

47

0%

47

15%

23%

Spn, Hib, Nm, Klebsiella and others

[16]

Egypt

78

(2 to 24)

78

10%

10%

24%

Tuberculosis

[17]

Egypt

289

12

289

8%

7%

32%

Tuberculosis

[49]

Ethiopia

53

34%

34%a

Spn, Hib, Nm, others

[36]

The Gambia

58

16%

8

48

13%

Hib

[48]

Cameroon

14

67

13%

3%

4%

4%

2%

3%b

7%

25%

Spn, Hib, Nm, others

[60]

Sudan

34

10%

(3 to 48)

27

22%

7%

7%

7%

11%

33%

Spn, Hib, Nm and others

[22]

The Gambia

160

18%

(11 to 90)

73

33%

11%

22%

27%c

19%

47%

Spn, Hib


The outcomes of children treated for all causes of CBM are shown for studies with >25 subjects. The number of cases discharged was calculated based on the number of CBM cases included in the study minus the number of children reported who died in-hospital. Post-discharge case fatality ratio (CFR) was calculated as the number of deaths after discharge divided by the number of cases with known follow-up; the denominator does not include cases lost to follow-up. Sequelae prevalence in children followed-up ranged from 3% to 47%. Half of the studies also had information on post-discharge CFR, which ranged from 0% to 18% in the period 3 to 90 months after illness.

aEstimated 'Any neuropsychological sequelae' based on single sequelae type with largest proportion; bparalysis; cgross motor impairment.

BP = behavioural problem; CD = cognitive delay; Hib = Haemophilus influenzae type b; HL = hearing loss; MI = motor impairment; Nm = Neisseria meningitidis; Spn = Streptococcus pneumoniae; SLD = speech or language disorder; SZ = seizures; VL = vision loss.

Ramakrishnan et al. BMC Medicine 2009 7:47   doi:10.1186/1741-7015-7-47

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