Table 4

In-hospital outcomes for all causes of confirmed bacterial meningitis (CBM), by study

Reference

Country

No. CBM cases with known outcomes

CFR

No. cases assessed for sequelae

HL (%)

VL (%)

CD (%)

BP (%)

MI (%)

SZ (%)

Any neuropsychological sequelae (%)

Bacterial pathogens studied


[43]

Ethiopia

32

34%

Spn, Hib, Nm, Gram negative enterococci

[45]

Ethiopia

124

2%

121

3%

8%

Nm

[54]

Kenya

224

33%

150

27%

Spn, Hib, non-typhi Salmonella, enterobacteria, Streptococcus group A or B and others

[62]

Sudan

108

4%

104

3%

2%

5%

Nm

[60]

Sudan

43

19%

35

20%

11%a

26%

Spn, Hib, Nm and others

[38]

Cameroon

174

30%

121

17%

Spn, Hib, Nm, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, enterobacteria

[64]

Cameroon

99

9%

90

1%a

1%

4%

Spn, Hib, Nm

[63]

Burkina Faso

53

75%

Salmonella

[66]

Burkina Faso

92

22%

72

7%

18%

Hib

[37]

Cote d'Ivoire

654

41%

380

6%

1%

2%

19%

Spn, Hib

[53]

Cote d'Ivoire

47

4%

45

7%

Spn, Hib, Nm

[47]

Ghana

67

27%

49

8%

2%

6%a

12%

Spn, Hib, Nm

[67]

Mali and Niger

426

37%

269

14%

Spn, Hib, Nm and others

[55]

Nigeria

124

27%

91

18%

Spn, Hib, Nm and others

[40]

Senegal

511

18%

420

21%

Spn, Hib, Nm

[56]

Angola

403

33%

270

24%

Spn, Hib, Nm, others

[57]

Madagascar

83

31%

57

30%

Spn, Hib, Nm

[51]

Malawi

149

34%

92

20%

Spn, Hib, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Group B Streptococcus, others

[52]

Malawi

52

54%

Salmonella

[44]

Gabon

91

31%

62

18%

Spn, Hib, Nm, Salmonella

[59]

Algeria

57

4%

55

2%

2%

4%

Hib

[16]

Egypt

160

51%

78

8%

6%

18%

Tuberculosis

[34]

Morocco

118

1%

117

9%

3%

1%

2%

1%

21%

Nm

[33]

Morocco

141

9%

128

27%

Spn

[15]

Tunisia

73

14%

61

7%

2%

5%

3%

34%

Spn

[42]

South Africa

61

20%

49

33%

8%

37%

57%

Spn, Hib, Nm, others

[14]

South Africa

79

30%

55

5%

38%

Spn


This table presents data extracted on in-hospital sequelae among studies with at least 25 CBM survivors and case fatality ratios (CFRs) among studies with at least 25 CBM cases for all bacterial causes combined. The proportion of meningitis survivors with any kind of neuropsychological sequelae, either one or more deficits, ranged from 4% to 57%. The in-hospital CFR ranged from 1% to 75%. In many studies, the proportion of children affected by specific types of sequelae was not given. Most sequelae were diagnosed by clinical exam only during the course of hospitalisation.

aParalysis.

BP = behavioural problem; CD = cognitive delay; Hib = Haemophilus influenzae type b; HL = hearing loss; MI = motor impairment; Nm = Neisseria meningitidis; Spn = Streptococcus pneumoniae; SZ = seizures; VL = vision loss;

Ramakrishnan et al. BMC Medicine 2009 7:47   doi:10.1186/1741-7015-7-47

Open Data