Table 4

Construct validity for excellence and measurement validity of discussed ranking systems

Construct validity for excellence

Measurement validity


Research

Education


Shanghai

Alumni, Nobel/Fields

-

-

++

Faculty, Nobel/Fields

+++

+

++

Faculty, highly-cited

++

+

+

Nature/Science articles

++

-

+++

Number of articles

-

-

+

Size

-

-

-

Times

Peer opinion

+++

+++

-

Graduate recruiter opinion

-

+

-

International faculty

+

+

?

International students

-

+

?

Student-faculty ratio

-

+

?

Citations per faculty

++

-

+

Other rankings

Web presence

+

+

+

Funding

+

-

+


-, Poor; +, low/modest; ++, good; +++, very good; ?, unknown (insufficient detail provided on the reliability of databases).

Ioannidis et al. BMC Medicine 2007 5:30   doi:10.1186/1741-7015-5-30

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