Table 3

Estimated loss of RLE (95% CI) associated with individual lifestyle risk factors for 40-year-old men and women, the EPIC-Heidelberg cohorta
Men (n = 10,235) Women (n = 12,234)
Smoking category
Never smokers 0 0
Long-term quitters 1.4 (0.3, 2.4) 0.2 (−1.4, 1.9)b
Short-term quitters 4.8 (3.3, 6.3) 0.9 (−1.2, 3.2)b
Light smokers 5.3 (3.6, 7.1) 5.0 (3.2, 6.6)
Heavy smokers 9.4 (8.3,10.6) 7.3 (6.0, 8.9)
Body weight status
Optimal BMI 0 0
Low BMI 3.5 (1.8, 5.1) 2.1 (0.5, 3.6)
Overweight 1.1 (0.1, 2.3) 0.6 (−0.8, 2.3)b
Obesity 3.1 (1.9, 4.4) 3.2 (1.8, 5.1)
Alcoholic drinks/day
≤2 (men)/ ≤0.5 (women) 0 0
2.1 to 4 (men)/ 0.6 to 1 (women) 1.7 (0.8, 2.7) −1.0 (−2.6, 0.3)b
>4 (men)/ >1 (women) 3.1 (1.9, 4.0) 1.0 (−0.3, 2.4)b
Leisure time physical activity
High 0 0
Low 0.4 (−0.3, 1.2)b 1.1 (0.05, 2.1)
Processed/red meat consumption
Low 0 0
High 1.4 (0.6, 2.2) 2.4 (1.0, 3.9)
Vegetable/fruit consumption
High 0 0
Low 1.3 (0.4, 2.1) 0.8 (−0.2, 1.9)b

aParticipants with pre-existing diabetes, cardiovascular disease or cancer were excluded. bMinus sign denotes a gain in RLE. BMI, body mass index; CI, confidence interval; EPIC, European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition; RLE, residual life expectancy.

Li et al.

Li et al. BMC Medicine 2014 12:59   doi:10.1186/1741-7015-12-59

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