Table 2

Summary of maternal and intergenerational effects
Key areas Maternal exposure - possible consequences Intergenerational associations - increased risk of
Violence Domestic violence Congenital malformations
Mental illness/physical trauma Low birth weight
Rape Perinatal morbidity and mortality
Trafficking and prostitution Premature birth
Altered physical and mental development
Neglect and abuse
Mental health PTSD Impaired growth
Depression Poor educational attainment
Anxiety Neuroendocrine and immune system modulation
Psychosomatic disorders Infection
Drug and alcohol abuse Mental illness
Higher suicide rates
Social functioning impairment
Infectious diseases and health systems Increased transmission of infectious diseases Fetal or infant mortality
Malnutrition Disability
Obstetric complications Cardiovascular disease
Increase in maternal mortality Congenital malformations
Impaired cognitive development
Nutrition Malnutrition including micronutrient deficiencies Neonatal mortality
Obstetric complications Low birth weight
Maternal mortality Malnutrition/under-nutrition
Impaired growth and development
Educational under-attainment
Congenital abnormalities
Non-communicable diseases
Future reproductive capacity

Devakumar et al.

Devakumar et al. BMC Medicine 2014 12:57   doi:10.1186/1741-7015-12-57

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