Table 4

England (1999 to 2011): rate ratios of immune-mediated disease (IMD) following tuberculosis (TB)
Immune-mediated disease (O and E) All time intervals: rate ratio (95% CI), P value At least 1 year after admission: rate ratio (95% CI), P value At least 5 years after admission: rate ratio (95% CI), P value
Addison’s disease (74, 9.6) 8.0 (6.3 to 10.1), <0.001 10.6 (7.4 to 14.8), <0.001 4.7 (2.2 to 8.7), <0.001
Ankylosing spondylitis (30, 32.9) 0.9 (0.6 to 1.3), 0.7 1.1 (0.5 to 1.9), 0.9 0.9 (0.3 to 1.9), 0.8
Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (16, 6.3) 2.6 (1.5 to 4.2), <0.001 2.2 (0.8 to 4.9), 0.1 0.7 (0.0 to 3.6), 1
Chronic active hepatitis (14, 2.9) 4.9 (2.6 to 8.2), <0.001 2.7 (0.7 to 7.1), 0.1 3.7 (0.4 to 13.6), 0.2
Crohn’s disease (101, 75.9)a 1.3 (1.1 to 1.6), 0.005 1.0 (0.8 to 1.3), 1.0 0.7 (0.4 to 1.2), 0.3
Coeliac disease (45, 45.0) 1.00 (0.7 to 1.3), 0.9 1.0 (0.6 to 1.5), 1.0 0.7 (0.3 to 1.4), 0.4
Dermatomyositis (3, 1.6) 1.9 (0.4 to 5.5), 0.5 4.4 (0.9 to 13.1), 0.03 0.0 (0.0 to 9.4), 0.9
Polymyositis (10, 3.3) 3.1 (1.5 to 5.7), 0.001 2.3 (0.5 to 6.7), 0.3 2.5 (0.3 to 9.0), 0.5
Goodpasture’s syndrome (4, 0.8) 5.1 (1.4 to 13.1), 0.003 0.0 (0.0 to 10.4), 0.8 0.0 (0.0 to 17.3), 0.5
Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (7, 6.1) 1.2 (0.5 to 2.4), 0.9 1.3 (0.3 to 3.8), 0.9 0.0 (0.0 to 2.2), 0.4
ITP (49, 22.4) 2.2 (1.6 to 2.9), <0.001 2.2 (1.3 to 3.4), 0.001 1.7 (0.8 to 3.1), 0.2
Multiple sclerosis (17, 49.2) 0.3 (0.2 to 0.6), <0.001 0.7 (0.3 to 1.2), 0.2 0.5 (0.2 to 1.2), 0.2
Myasthenia gravis (10, 10.1) 1.0 (0.5 to 1.8), 0.9 1.5 (0.6 to 3.3), 0.4 0.9 (0.1 to 3.3), 0.9
Myxedema (649, 888.8) 0.7 (0.7 to 0.8), <0.001 1.1 (1.0 to 1.2), 0.1 0.9 (0.8 to 1.0), 0.2
Pemphigus (4, 2.3) 1.8 (0.5 to 4.5), 0.4 0.9 (0.2 to 2.3), 1 0.0 (0.0 to 6.1), 0.9
Pemphigoid (12, 10.9) 1.1 (0.6 to 1.9), 0.9 1.2 (0.0 to 6.7), 0.7 2.1 (0.8 to 4.4), 0.1
Pernicious anemia (74, 63.2) 1.2 (0.9 to 1.5), 0.2 1.3 (0.9 to 1.9), 0.2 1.3 (0.8 to 2.0), 0.2
Polyarteritis nodosa (8, 1.8) 4.5 (1.9 to 9.0), <0.001 8.2 (3.0 to 18.2), <0.001 2.1 (0.1 to 11.8), 1.0
Primary biliary cirrhosis (13, 8.0) 1.6 (0.9 to 2.8), 0.1 1.8 (0.7 to 4.0), 0.2 1.0 (0.1 to 3.5), 0.8
Psoriasis (108, 119.9) 0.9 (0.7 to 1.1), 0.3 1.4 (1.0 to 1.8), 0.04 0.9 (0.5 to 1.3), 0.5
Rheumatoid arthritis (259, 271.8)b 0.9 (0.8 to 1.1), 0.5 1.1 (1.0 to 1.3), 0.1 1.0 (0.7 to 1.2), 0.8
Scleroderma (14, 8.8) 1.6 (0.9 to 2.7), 0.1 1.1 (0.3 to 2.9), 1 1.6 (0.4 to 4.2), 0.5
Sjögren’s syndrome (35, 17.8) 2.0 (1.4 to 2.8), <0.001 2.1 (1.2 to 3.6), <0.001 2.6 (1.4 to 4.6), <0.001
SLE (82, 23.2) 3.6 (2.9 to 4.5), <0.001 4.4 (3.1 to 6.0), <0.001 2.5 (1.3 to 4.3). <0.001
Thyrotoxicosis (141, 117.1) 1.2 (1.0 to 1.4), 0.03 1.5 (1.2 to 1.9), <0.001 1.1 (0.8 to 1.6), 0.5
Ulcerative colitis (106, 121.8) 0.9 (0.7 to 1.1), 0.2 0.9 (0.7 to 1.2), 0.5 0.9 (0.6 to 1.3), 0.6

The table shows observed numbers of cases of selected immune-mediated diseases in people with TB; showing observed and expected (O and E) numbers of cases at all time intervals, and rate ratios and 95% CIs based on comparison with the control cohort for (a) all time intervals , (b) cases of IMD first admitted at least a year after admission for TB, and (c) cases of IMD first admitted at least 5 years after admission for TB. aFor Crohn’s disease, the reference cohort was adjusted to remove appendectomy and hemorrhoids as these conditions were found to have elevated risks for Crohn’s disease. We present these ‘adjusted’ results in the Table. The unadjusted results for all time intervals were as follows: 101 observed, 90.8 expected, RR 1.1 (95% CI 0.9 to 1.4, P = 0.3). bFor rheumatoid arthritis, the reference cohort was adjusted to remove hip replacement and knee replacement as these operations are associated with rheumatoid arthritis in some patients. We present these ‘adjusted’ results in the Table. The unadjusted results for all time intervals were as follows: 259 observed, 337.2 expected, RR 0.8 (95% CI 0.7 to 0.9, P = 0.3).

Ramagopalan et al.

Ramagopalan et al. BMC Medicine 2013 11:97   doi:10.1186/1741-7015-11-97

Open Data