Table 2

England (1999 to 2011): rate ratios of tuberculosis following selected immune-mediated diseases (IMD)
Immune-mediated disease (O and E for subsequent TB) All time intervals: rate ratio (95% CI), P value At least 1 year after admission: rate ratio (95% CI), P value At least 5 years after admission: rate ratio (95% CI), P value
Addison’s disease (85, 7.2) 11.9 (9.5 to 14.7), <0.001 11.9 (8.4 to 16.3), <0.001 11.4 (6.9 to 17.6), <0.001
Ankylosing spondylitis (75, 18) 4.2 (3.3 to 5.3), <0.001 4.1 (2.8 to 5.8), <0.001 3.9 (2.2 to 6.2), <0.001
Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (28, 5.5) 5.1 (3.4 to 7.4), <0.001 4.9 (2.5 to 8.5), <0.001 4.0 (1.1 to 10.3), 0.013
Chronic active hepatitis (13, 2.9) 4.5 (2.4 to 7.7), <0.001 5.6 (2.3 to 11.6), <0.001 5.8 (1.9 to 13.6), <0.001
Crohn’s disease (269, 76.1) 3.7 (3.2 to 4.1), <0.001 2.8 (2.3 to 3.5), <0.001 2.1 (1.5 to 2.8), <0.001
Coeliac disease (79, 34.1) 2.3 (1.9 to 2.9), <0.001 2.4 (1.6 to 3.3), <0.001 2.3 (1.4 to 3.7), <0.001
Dermatomyositis (9, 1.4) 6.6 (3.0 to 12.5), <0.001 1.8 (0.1 to 9.9), 0.9 0.0 (0.0 to 10.3), 0.8
Polymyositis (21, 2.7) 8.0 (4.9 to 12.2), <0.001 6.4 (2.8 to 12.7), <0.001 1.6 (0.0 to 8.8), 0.9
Goodpasture’s syndrome (6, 0.6) 10.8 (4.0 to 23.5), <0.001 3.9 (0.1 to 21.7), 0.6 8.4 (0.2 to 47.0), 0.3
Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (9, 4) 2.2 (1.0 to 4.3), 0.03 1.1 (0.1 to 4.0), 0.8 2.1 (0.3 to 7.4), 0.6
ITP (61, 17.7) 3.5 (2.7 to 4.5), <0.001 2.4 (1.4 to 3.7), <0.001 2.4 (1.1 to 4.6), 0.02
Multiple sclerosis (40, 48.7) 0.8 (0.6 to 1.1), 0.2 0.7 (0.4 to 1.2), 0.2 0.7 (0.3 to 1.3), 0.4
Myasthenia gravis (24, 9.1) 2.6 (1.7 to 3.9), <0.001 2.1 (1.0 to 4.0), 0.04 0.5 (0.01 to 2.6), 0.6
Myxedema (843, 566.6) 1.6 (1.5 to 1.7), <0.001 1.5 (1.4 to 1.7), <0.001 1.2 (1.0 to 1.5), 0.04
Pemphigus (2, 1.4) 1.4 (0.2 to 5.0), 0.96 1.5 (0.0 to 8.3), 0.8 0.0 (0.0 to 11.8), 0.7
Pemphigoid (17, 8.4) 2.0 (1.2 to 3.3), <0.001 1.8 (0.7 to 3.8), 0.2 1.5 (0.2 to 5.4), 0.9
Pernicious anemia (77, 40.8) 1.9 (1.5 to 2.4), <0.001 2.1 (1.5 to 2.8), <0.001 1.2 (0.6 to 2.3), 0.7
Polyarteritis nodosa (10, 1.5) 6.7 (3.2 to 12.4), <0.001 4.5 (0.9 to 13.1), 0.03 11.4 (3.1 to 29.4), <0.001
Primary biliary cirrhosis (24, 5.8) 4.1 (2.6 to 6.1), <0.001 4.2 (2.1 to 7.6), <0.001 3.1 (0.9 to 8.1), 0.05
Psoriasis (177, 69.8) 2.6 (2.2 to 3.0), <0.001 2.4 (1.9 to 3.0), <0.001 3.1 (2.2 to 4.1), <0.001
Rheumatoid arthritis (730, 249) 3.2 (3.0 to 3.5), <0.001 3.0 (2.7 to 3.4), <0.001 3.0 (2.5 to 3.5), <0.001
Scleroderma (42, 6.9) 6.1 (4.4 to 8.2), <0.001 5.3 (3.0 to 8.6), <0.001 5.0 (2.9 to 11.0), <0.001
Sjögren’s syndrome (46, 10.4) 4.4 (3.2 to 5.9), <0.001 5.1 (3.2 to 7.6), <0.001 4.0 (1.8 to 7.6), <0.001
SLE (138, 15.1) 9.4 (7.9 to 11.1), <0.001 9.1 (7.0 to 11.7), <0.001 9.1 (6.3 to 12.9), <0.001
Thyrotoxicosis (150, 74.8) 2.0 (1.7 to 2.4), <0.001 2.2 (1.7 to 2.7), <0.001 1.4 (0.8 to 2.1), 0.2
Ulcerative colitis (204, 125.2) 1.7 (1.4 to 1.9), <0.001 1.5 (1.2 to 1.8), 0.001 1.5 (1.1 to 2.0), 0.003

Table shows observed and expected (O and E) numbers of cases at all time intervals, and rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) based on comparison with the control cohort for (a) all time intervals, (b) cases of tuberculosis (TB) first admitted at least a year after admission for IMD, and (c) cases of TB first admitted at least 5 years after admission for IMD. Rate ratios were adjusted for sex, age in 5-year bands, time period in single calendar years, region of residence and deprivation score associated with patients’ area of residence, in quintiles. Conditions used in reference cohort, with Office of Population, Censuses and Surveys (OPCS) code, fourth edition, for operations and International Classification of Diseases, tenth edition (ICD-10) code for diagnosis (with equivalent codes used for other coding editions) were: appendectomy (OPCS4 H01 to H03), adenoidectomy (E20), tonsillectomy (F34+F36), dilation and curettage (Q10.3+Q11.4), total hip replacement (W37 to W39), total knee replacement (W40 to W42), squint (ICD-10 H49 to H51), cataract (H25), otitis externa/media (H60 to H67), varicose veins (I83), hemorrhoids (I84), deflected septum, nasal polyp (J33+J34.2), impacted tooth and other disorders of teeth (K00 to K03), inguinal hernia (K40), ingrowing nail, toenail and other diseases of nail (L60), sebaceous cyst (L72.1), bunion (M20.1), internal derangement of knee (M23), dislocations, sprains and strains (S03, S13, S23, S33, S43, S53, S63, S73, S83, S93), selected limb fractures (S42, S52, S62, S82, S92), superficial injury and contusion (S00, S10, S20, S30, S40, S50, S60, S70, S80, S90), contraceptive management (Z30).

Ramagopalan et al.

Ramagopalan et al. BMC Medicine 2013 11:97   doi:10.1186/1741-7015-11-97

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