Table 1

Baseline characteristics of the study population

Intervention group

(n = 120)

Control group

(n = 121)

Pa


Characteristic

Male (%)

39 (33%)

39 (32%)

0.96

Age (year)

83.4 ±5.81

83.2 ±5.91

0.80

Lives alone (%)

60 (50%)

51 (42%)

0.22

Number of frailty criteria presentb (%)

0.84

Three

77 (64%)

79 (65%)

Four

33 (28%)

30 (25%)

Five

10 (8%)

12 (10%)

Weight

68.5 (15.7)

69.3 (17.3)

0.70

Exhaustion (%)

77 (64%)

76 (63%)

0.83

Grip strength (kg)

15.8 (7.2)

15.3 (7.2)

0.70

Gait speed (m/s)

0.48 (0.18)

0.50 (0.17)

0.32

Low physical activity (%)

73 (61%)

83 (69%)

0.21

Frailty, mean Cardiovascular Health Study score

Health status

3.44 (0.65)

3.45 (0.67)

0.96

Coexisting conditionsc

5.87 ±2.33

5.75 ±2.24

0.70

Body mass index (kg/m2)

26.1 ±5.91

26.4 ±6.04

0.67

Geriatric Depression Scaled,e

4.76 ±3.18

5.06 ±3.19

0.47

Mini Mental State Examinationd,e

26.6 ±2.59

25.9 ±3.14

0.07

Functioning

Disability, Barthel Indexe

93.9 ±11.1

92.5 ±14.3

0.40

Mobility, Short Physical Performance Batterye

5.21 ±1.89

5.74 ±2.12

0.04

Mobility, lower extremity continuous summary performance scoree

1.74 ±0.43

1.86 ±0.45

0.05

Health-related quality of life, EuroQol-5De

7.67 ±1.47

7.83 ±1.50

0.39

Health-related quality of life, EuroQol-5D VASe

58.2 ±15.8

57.9 ±18.4

0.90


Data presented as number (%) or mean ±standard deviation. aP-values were derived from the chi-square test or analysis of variance. bFrailty phenotype as specified using Cardiovascular Health Study criteria. cSelf-reported, doctor-diagnosed medical conditions. dMissing data for Geriatric Depression Scale (n = 1), Mini Mental Status Examination (n = 2). eThe Geriatric Depression Scale (short form) has scores between 0 and 15 with a higher score indicating more depressive symptoms. For the Mini Mental Status Examination, higher scores indicate higher cognitive function with a maximum score of 30. The Barthel Index has scores between 0 and 100 with higher scores indicating better basic activities of daily living functioning. The Short Physical Performance Battery [7] has scores between 0 and 12, and the lower extremity continuous summary performance [15] scale has scores between 0 and 2.71; in both, better mobility function is indicated by a higher score. The EQ-5D has scores between 5 and 15 with higher scores indicating worse health-related quality of life. The EQ-5D VAS has scores between 0 and 100 with higher scores indicating better health-related quality of life. VAS: visual analog scale.

Cameron et al. BMC Medicine 2013 11:65   doi:10.1186/1741-7015-11-65

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