Changes of smoking-related metabolites in current, former and never smokers in KORA S4 → F4. Taking the NS as baseline, the concentration change of each metabolite is shown as the adjusted mean residue in KORA S4 and F4 in all three groups (CS, FS and NS). Only metabolites with significant prospective change in KORA S4 → F4 are shown in the figure. Residuals were calculated from a linear regression model (regression of metabolite concentration on age, body mass index and alcohol consumption). aa: diacyl-; ae: acyl-alkyl-; CS: current smokers; FS: former smokers; lysoPC: acyl-phosphatidylcholine; NS: never smokers; PC: phosphatidylcholine.
Xu et al. BMC Medicine 2013 11:60 doi:10.1186/1741-7015-11-60