Open Access Research article

Effects of smoking and smoking cessation on human serum metabolite profile: results from the KORA cohort study

Tao Xu1, Christina Holzapfel12, Xiao Dong34, Erik Bader1, Zhonghao Yu1, Cornelia Prehn5, Katrin Perstorfer1, Marta Jaremek1, Werner Roemisch-Margl6, Wolfgang Rathmann7, Yixue Li3, H -Erich Wichmann89, Henri Wallaschofski10, Karl H Ladwig1112, Fabian Theis136, Karsten Suhre14156, Jerzy Adamski165, Thomas Illig117, Annette Peters11118 and Rui Wang-Sattler1*

Author Affiliations

1 Research Unit of Molecular Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Ingolstädter Landstraße 1, Neuherberg, 85764, Germany

2 Else Kroener-Fresenius-Center for Nutritional Medicine, University Hospital, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Ismaninger Straße 22, Munich, 81675, Germany

3 Key Laboratory of Systems Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yue Yang Road 320, Shanghai, 200031, China

4 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yuquanlu 19A, Beijing, 100049, China

5 Institute of Experimental Genetics, Genome Analysis Center, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Ingolstädter Landstraße 1, Neuherberg, 85764, Germany

6 Institute of Bioinformatics and Systems Biology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Ingolstädter Landstraße 1, Neuherberg, 85764, Germany

7 Institute of Biometrics and Epidemiology, German Diabetes Center, Leibniz Center for Diabetes Research at Heinrich Heine University, Moorenstr. 5, Düsseldorf, 40225, Germany

8 Institute of Epidemiology I, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Ingolstädter Landstraße 1, Neuherberg, 85764, Germany

9 Institute of Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Marchioninistr. 15, Munich, 81377, Germany

10 Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, University Medicine Greifswald; Ernst-Moritz-Arndt University, Ferdinand-Sauerbruch-Straße, Greifswald, 17475, Germany

11 Institute of Epidemiology II, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Ingolstädter Landstraße 1, Neuherberg, 85764, Germany

12 Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, University Hospital, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Ismaninger Straße 22, Munich, 81675, Germany

13 Department of Mathematics, Technische Universität München, Boltzmannstraße 3, Garching, 85748, Germany

14 Faculty of Biology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Großhaderner Straße 2-4, Planegg-Martinsried, 82152, Germany

15 Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar (WCMC-Q), PO Box 24144, Doha, Qatar

16 Chair of Experimental Genetics, Technische Universität München, Ingolstädter Landstraße 1, Neuherberg, 85764, Germany

17 Hannover Unified Biobank, Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg-Straße 1, Hannover, 30625, Germany

18 Harvard School of Public Health, Department of Environmental Health, 677 Huntington Avenue, Boston, 02115, USA

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BMC Medicine 2013, 11:60  doi:10.1186/1741-7015-11-60

Published: 4 March 2013

Additional files

Additional file 1:

Table S1: Cessation time-related metabolites in FS. FDR was calculated by P-value adjusted for the number of smoking-related metabolites with Benjamini-Hochberg method. aa: diacyl-; ae: acyl-alkyl-; C0: carnitine; FS: former smokers; lysoPC: acyl-phosphatidylcholine; PC: phosphatidylcholine; SM (OH): hydroxysphingomyeline.

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Additional file 2:

Table S2: Enrichment and impact of smoking-related metabolites in Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways. Table shows the enrichment and impact scores of smoking-related metabolites in Kyoto encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways. The pathway analysis consists of enrichment and a structural impact analysis both based on Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database. The -log (P) was considered as the enrichment score. Impact, scored between 0 and 1, indicated the pathway topological importance of the metabolites. In particular, the parameter Total is the total number of compounds in the pathway; the parameter Hits is the actual number of metabolites with significant variations in the pathway; the Raw P was the original P-value calculated from the enrichment analysis; the FDR was calculated as the P-value adjusted using Benjamini-Hochberg method.

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Additional file 3:

Table S3: Links between smoking-related metabolites, enzymes and genes. The table describes the links showed in Figure 6 of the main text. The smoking-related metabolites, enzymes and genes are listed in the first and second columns. The score of interaction is given according to the definition by the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins [1]. A reference for each link and a short description is provided. The Column of reaction shows the possible biochemical reaction of the corresponding link or the type of protein interaction. The enzymes includes, phospholipase A2, membrane associated (GIIC sPLA2), cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), group 10 secretory phospholipase A2 (PLA2G10), lysophospholipase I (LYPLA1), apolipoprotein A-V (APOA5), uteroglobin (SCGB1A1), lecithin retinol acyltransferase (LRAT), nitric oxide synthase 1 (NOS1), solute carrier family 3 member 2 (SLC3A2), serine dehydratase (SDH), 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, type 1 (BDH). The smoking-related gene/protein includes, S100 calcium binding protein A10 (S100A10), glypican 1 (GPC1), sulfatase 1 (SULF1), alcohol dehydrogenase 7 (ADH7), dehydrogenase member 3 (DHRS3), aldose reductase (AKR1B1), acetoacetyl-CoA synthetase (AACS), V-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS), solute carrier family 7 (SLC7A11) and three enzyme listed above, PLA2G10, LYPLA1, SCGB1A1. The links in the network for male and female CS are combined and listed together. Smoking-related genes are show in italic. aa: diacyl-; ae: acyl-alkyl-; C0: carnitine; lysoPC: acyl-phosphatidylcholine; PC: phosphatidylcholine; SM (OH): hydroxysphingomyeline.

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