Table 7

Odds for small for gestational age (SGA) and total caffeine intake according to official guidelines

Total caffeine intake groups (mg/day)

Number of individuals

SGA (Marsal)

SGA (Skjaerven)

SGA (Gardosi)


ORa

95% CI

P valueb

ORa

95% CI

P valueb

ORa

95% CI

P valueb


0 to 50

27,000

1

1

1

51 to 200

25,718

1.18

1.00 to 1.38

0.04

1.12

1.05 to 1.21

0.001

1.09

1.02 to 1.17

0.01

201 to 300

4,447

1.62

1.26 to 2.09

<10-3

1.44

1.28 to 1.62

<10-8

1.27

1.12 to 1.44

<10-3

>300

1,958

1.62

1.15 to 2.29

0.006

1.66

1.41 to 1.96

<10-8

1.62

1.36 to 1.92

<10-7


Odds ratios for SGA and total caffeine intake (food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) data), according to official Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (<200 mg caffeine/day) and World Health Organization (<300 mg caffeine/day) guidelines, logistic regression for n = 59,123 in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, 2002 to 2009. SGA defined according to Marsal (ultrasound based), Skjaerven (population based) or Gardosi (customized).

aOR: odds ratio, compared to lowest caffeine intake group (0 to 50 mg/day).

bP value, logistic regression. Adjustment for maternal age, pre-pregnancy body mass index, parity, history of preterm delivery, baby's sex, nausea during second trimester, smoking habits, passive smoking, nicotine intake from other sources, alcohol consumption during pregnancy, energy intake, maternal education, marital status and household income.

Sengpiel et al. BMC Medicine 2013 11:42   doi:10.1186/1741-7015-11-42

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