Table 6

Odds for small for gestational age (SGA) and caffeine intake from different sources

Caffeine source

SGA (Marsal)

SGA (Skjaerven)

SGA (Gardosi)


ORa

95% CI

P valueb

ORa

95% CI

P valueb

ORa

95% CI

P valueb


Unadjusted:

Total

1.24

1.16 to 1.31

<10-11

1.17

1.13 to 1.20

<10-24

1.07

1.04 to 1.11

<10-4

Coffee, all types

1.21

1.13 to 1.30

<10-7

1.16

1.12 to 1.20

<10-17

1.10

1.06 to 1.13

<10-7

Caffeinated soft drinksc

1.35

1.09 to 1.67

0.007

1.27

1.14 to 1.41

<10-5

1.25

1.13 to 1.39

<10-4

Black tea

1.42

1.16 to 1.73

<10-3

1.20

1.09 to 1.33

<10-3

0.92

0.82 to 1.02

0.1

Chocolate

0.89

0.28 to 2.83

0.8

1.04

0.62 to 1.75

0.9

0.16

0.09 to 0.28

<10-9

Adjusted:

Total

1.18

1.10 to 1.26

<10-5

1.15

1.11 to 1.19

<10-15

1.11

1.08 to 1.15

<10-9

Coffee, all types

1.14

1.06 to 1.23

<10-3

1.13

1.09 to 1.17

<10-10

1.11

1.07 to 1.16

<10-7

Caffeinated soft drinksc

1.22

0.97 to 1.53

0.08

1.29

1.16 to 1.43

<10-5

1.19

1.06 to 1.33

0.002

Black tea

1.50

1.22 to 1.83

<10-4

1.21

1.09 to 1.34

<10-3

1.11

0.99 to 1.23

0.06

Chocolate

1.07

0.32 to 3.54

0.9

1.06

0.61 to 1.84

0.8

0.62

0.34 to 1.12

0.1


Odds for SGA and caffeine intake from different sources (food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) data), logistic regression for four caffeine sources as well as total caffeine intake, n = 59,123 in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, 2002 to 2009. SGA definition based on growth curves according to Marsal (ultrasound based), Skjaerven (population based) or Gardosi (customized).

aOR: odds ratio, compared to non-SGA, per 100 mg additional caffeine intake/day.

bP value, logistic regression. Adjustment for maternal age, pre-pregnancy body mass index, parity, history of preterm delivery, baby's sex, nausea during second trimester, smoking habits, passive smoking, nicotine intake from other sources, alcohol consumption during pregnancy, energy intake, maternal education, marital status and household income. In the analysis of the separate caffeine sources, these were mutually adjusted (coffee, caffeinated soft drinks, black tea and chocolate).

cCaffeinated soft drinks included in the FFQ: Coca Cola/Pepsi with sugar, Coca Cola light, Pepsi Light.

Sengpiel et al. BMC Medicine 2013 11:42   doi:10.1186/1741-7015-11-42

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