Table 5

Birth weight and caffeine intake from different sources

Caffeine source

Birth weight (Marsal)

Birth weight (Skjaerven)

Birth weight (Gardosi)


β (g)

95% CI

P valuea

β (g)

95% CI

P valuea

β (g)

95% CI

P valuea


Unadjusted:

Total

-28

-32 to-25

<10-48

-27

-31 to-23

<10-44

-12

-16 to-9

<10-10

Coffee, all types

-25

-29 to-21

<10-30

-22

-26 to-18

<10-24

-15

-19 to-11

<10-12

Caffeinated soft drinksb

-11

-24 to 1

0.08

-19

-32 to-6

0.005

-18

-30 to-5

0.006

Black tea

-53

-65 to-41

<10-18

-53

-65 to-42

<10-18

-3

-15 to 8

0.5

Chocolate

-164

-222 to-106

<10-7

-196

-254 to-138

<10-10

159

103 to 215

<10-7

Adjusted:

Total

-28

-32 to-24

<10-43

-25

-29 to-21

<10-34

-21

-24 to-17

<10-25

Coffee, all types

-24

-28 to-19

<10-26

-20

-24 to-15

<10-18

-19

-24 to-15

<10-19

Caffeinated soft drinksb

-34

-47 to-22

<10-7

-38

-50 to-25

<10-8

-23

-35 to-11

<3 × 10-4

Black tea

-50

-61 to-39

<10-17

-48

-59 to-36

<10-15

-29

-40 to-18

<10-6

Chocolate

-129

-188 to-70

<10-4

-133

-192 to-73

<10-4

-4

-62 to 53

0.9


Birth weight (BW) and caffeine intake from different sources (food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) data), linear regression for four caffeine sources as well as total caffeine intake, n = 59,123 in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, 2002 to 2009. β = BW decrease or increase in g per 100 mg additional caffeine/day for a baby with an expected BW of 3,600 g. Expected BW defined according to Marsal (ultrasound based), Skjaerven (population based) or Gardosi (customized).

aP value, linear regression. Adjustment for maternal age, pre-pregnancy body mass index, parity, history of preterm delivery, baby's sex, nausea during second trimester, smoking habits, passive smoking, nicotine intake from other sources, alcohol consumption during pregnancy, energy intake, maternal education, marital status, household income. In the analysis of the separate caffeine sources, these were mutually adjusted (coffee, caffeinated soft drinks, black tea and chocolate).

bCaffeinated soft drinks included in the FFQ: Coca Cola/Pepsi with sugar, Coca Cola light, Pepsi Light.

Sengpiel et al. BMC Medicine 2013 11:42   doi:10.1186/1741-7015-11-42

Open Data