Table 4

Odds for spontaneous preterm delivery (PTD) and caffeine intake from different sources

Caffeine source

All PTD (22+0 to 36+6 weeks)

Early PTD (22+0 to 33+6 weeks)

Late PTD (34+0 to 36+6 weeks)


ORa

95% CI

P valueb

ORa

95% CI

P valueb

ORa

95% CI

P valueb


Total

0.98

0.92 to 1.05

0.6

0.96

0.81 to 1.14

0.7

0.99

0.92 to 1.06

0.7

Coffee, all types

0.96

0.89 to 1.04

0.3

0.82

0.66 to 1.02

0.08

0.98

0.91 to 1.07

0.7

Caffeinated soft drinksc

1.10

0.90 to 1.34

0.4

1.21

0.77 to 1.89

0.4

1.07

0.87 to 1.33

0.5

Black tea

0.99

0.82 to 1.20

0.9

1.61

1.10 to 2.35

0.01

0.89

0.71 to 1.11

0.3

Chocolate

1.43

0.55 to 3.67

0.5

1.08

0.10 to 12.06

0.9

1.51

0.55 to 4.15

0.4


Odds ratios for spontaneous PTD, as well as for early (n = 240) and late (n = 1,211) spontaneous PTD subgroups, and caffeine intake from different sources (food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) data), logistic regression for four caffeine sources as well as total caffeine, n = 28,949, in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study 2002 to 2009.

aOR: odds ratio for spontaneous PTD groups, compared to a strictly defined control group with spontaneous delivery at weeks 39+0 to 40+6, per 100 mg additional caffeine/day.

bP value, logistic regression. Adjustment for maternal age, pre-pregnancy body mass index, parity, history of PTD, baby's sex, nausea during second trimester, smoking habits, passive smoking, nicotine intake from other sources, alcohol consumption during pregnancy, energy intake, maternal education, marital status and household income. In the analysis of the separate caffeine sources, these were mutually adjusted (coffee, caffeinated soft drinks, black tea and chocolate).

cCaffeinated soft drinks included in the FFQ: Coca Cola/Pepsi with sugar, Coca Cola light, Pepsi Light.

Sengpiel et al. BMC Medicine 2013 11:42   doi:10.1186/1741-7015-11-42

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