Small for gestational age (SGA) risk depending on total caffeine intake. Relative risk for SGA in sextiles of total caffeine intake with the lowest sextile as reference category (0 to 14.645, 14.646 to 32.093, 32.094 to 57.265, 57.266 to 96.029, 9603 to 163.806, >163.806 mg/day). SGA definitions according to Marsal (ultrasound based), Skjaerven (population based) and Gardosi (customized), n = 59,123, in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study 2002 to 2009. Adjustment for maternal age, pre-pregnancy body mass index, parity, history of preterm delivery, baby's sex, nausea during second trimester, smoking habits, passive smoking, nicotine intake from other sources, alcohol consumption during pregnancy, energy intake, maternal education, marital status and household income.
Sengpiel et al. BMC Medicine 2013 11:42 doi:10.1186/1741-7015-11-42