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Open Access Opinion

The link between chronic periodontitis and COPD: a common role for the neutrophil?

Adam KH Usher* and Robert A Stockley

Author Affiliations

Lung Investigation Unit, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Mindelsohn Way, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2WB, UK

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BMC Medicine 2013, 11:241  doi:10.1186/1741-7015-11-241

Published: 13 November 2013

Abstract

Background

The possible relationship between chronic inflammatory diseases and their co-morbidities has become an increasing focus of research. Both chronic periodontitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are neutrophilic, inflammatory conditions characterized by the loss of local connective tissue. Evidence suggests an association and perhaps a causal link between the two diseases. However, the nature of any relationship between them is unclear, but if pathophysiologically established may have wide-reaching implications for targeted treatments to improve outcomes and prognosis.

Discussion

There have been a number of epidemiological studies undertaken demonstrating an independent association between chronic periodontitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, many of them have significant limitations, and drawing firm conclusions regarding causality may be premature. Although the pathology of both these diseases is complex and involves many cell types, such as CD8 positive cells and macrophages, both conditions are predominantly characterized by neutrophilic inflammation. Increasingly, there is evidence that the two conditions are underpinned by similar pathophysiological processes, especially centered on the functions of the neutrophil. These include a disturbance in protease/anti-protease and redox state balance. The association demonstrated by epidemiological studies, as well as emerging similarities in pathogenesis at the level of the neutrophil, suggest a basis for testing the effects of treatment for one condition upon the severity of the other.

Summary

Although the evidence of an independent association between chronic periodontitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease grows stronger, there remains a lack of definitive studies designed to establish causality and treatment effects. There is a need for future research to be focused on answering these questions.

Keywords:
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; Emphysema; Neutrophil; Neutrophil extracellular trap; Oxidative stress; Periodontal diseases; Protease/proteinase